2 and the increasing complexity of systems. SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organismsand the increasing complexity of systems.a. Explain the cycling of energy through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.b. Compare how structures and function vary between the six kingdoms (archaebacteria,eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals).c. Examine the evolutionary basis of modern classification systems.d. Compare and contrast viruses with living organisms.
3 KEY CONCEPT Fermentation allows the production of a small amount of ATP without oxygen.
4 OH NO! NO OXYGEN! WHAT DO WE DO? If no oxygen is available, cells can obtain energy through the process of anaerobic respiration.A common anaerobic process is fermentation.Fermentation is not an efficient process and results in the formation of far fewer ATP molecules than aerobic respiration.
5 There are two primary fermentation processes: Lactic Acid FermentationAlcohol Fermentation
6 Lactic acid fermentation occurs when oxygen is not available. For example, in muscle tissues during rapid and vigorous exercise, muscle cells may be depleted of oxygen. They then switch from respiration to fermentation.
7 The pyruvic acid formed during glycolysis is broken down to lactic acid and energy is released (which is used to form ATP).Glucose → Pyruvic acid → Lactic acid + energy
11 The process of lactic acid fermentation replaces the process of aerobic respiration so that the cell can have a continual source of energy, even in the absence of oxygen.However this shift is only temporary and cells need oxygen for sustained activity.
12 Lactic acid that builds up in the tissue causes a burning, painful sensation.
13 Alcohol fermentation occurs in yeasts and some bacteria. Pyruvic acid formed during glycolysis is broken down to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide and is released (which is used to form ATP).
17 Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue. Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable.Fermentation is an anaerobic process.occurs when oxygen is not available for cellular respirationdoes not produce ATP
20 NAD+ is recycled to glycolysis Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable.NAD+ is recycled to glycolysisLactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle cells.glycolysis splits glucose into two pyruvate moleculespyruvate and NADH enter fermentationenergy from NADH converts pyruvate into lactic acidNADH is changed back into NAD+
21 Fermentation and its products are important in several ways. Alcoholic fermentation is similar to lactic acid fermentation.glycolysis splits glucose and the products enter fermentationenergy from NADH is used to split pyruvate into an alcohol and carbon dioxideNADH is changed back into NAD+NAD+ is recycled to glycolysis