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Chapter 11 Section 3 Water Pollution Environmental Science Spring 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Section 3 Water Pollution Environmental Science Spring 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Section 3 Water Pollution Environmental Science Spring 2011

2 Objectives Compare point-source pollution and nonpoint-source pollution Classify water pollutants by 5 types Explain why groundwater pollution is difficult to clean up Describe the major sources of ocean pollution, and explain the effects of pollution on ecosystems Describe the six major laws designed to improve water quality in the United States

3 Water Pollution Water pollution: the introduction of chemical, physical, or biological agents into water that degrade water quality and adversely affect the organisms that depend on the water Almost all of the ways we use water contribute to water pollution Two underlying causes of water pollution are industrialization and rapid human population growth

4 Water Pollution In developing countries water pollution comes from sewage and agricultural runoff which can spread waterborne diseases

5 Point-Source Pollution
Point-source pollution: pollution discharged from a single source Ex. Factory, wastewater treatment plant, leaking oil tanker Can often be identified and traced to source but enforcing cleanup may be difficult

6 Nonpoint-Source Pollution
Nonpoint-source pollution: comes from many different sources that are often difficult to identify Ex. River can be polluted by runoff from any of e and in its watershed Can enter bodies of water in many different ways, they are extremely difficult to regulate and control 96% of polluted water bodies of US were contaminated by nonpoint-source pollutants

7 Principal Water Pollutants
Pathogen Organic matter Organic chemicals Inorganic chemicals Heavy metals Physical agents

8 Wastewater Wastewater: water that contains waste from homes or industry Wastewater treatment plant: water is filtered and treated to make the water clean enough to return to a river or lake

9 Treating Wastewater Most of wastewater from homes contains biodegradable material that can be broken down by living organisms Some household and industrial wastewater and some storm-water runoff contains toxic substances that cannot be removed by standard treatment

10 Sewage Sludge Sewage sludge: solid material that remains after treatment When sludge contains dangerous concentrations of toxic chemicals, must be disposed of as hazardous wastes Sludge often incinerated and ash is buried in a secure landfill Can be expensive, looking for ways to use sludge, if can be reduced to safe levels may be used as fertilizer, or made into bricks

11 Artificial Eutrophication
Most nutrients come from organic matter, such as leaves and animal waste, that is broken down into mineral nutrients by decomposers such as bacteria and fungi Nutrients are essential part of any aquatic ecosystem, overabundance of nutrients can disrupt ecosystem

12 Artificial Eutrophication
Eutrophic: when lakes and slow moving streams contain an abundance of nutrients Natural process When organic matter builds up in a body of water, will begin to decay and decompose Uses up oxygen As oxygen levels decrease, types of organisms that live in water change over time

13 Artificial Eutrophication
As body of water becomes eutrophic, plants take root in nutrient rich sediments at bottom More plants grow, shallow waters begin to fill in Body of water becomes swamp or marsh

14 Artificial Eutrophication
Artificial Eutrophication: natural process of eutrophication is accelerated when inorganic plant nutrients (phosphorous and nitrogen) enter water from sewage and fertilizer runoff

15 Artificial Eutrophication
Algal blooms: phosphorous is a plant nutrient that causes excess growth of algae; floating mats of algae As algae die and decompose, most of dissolved oxygen is used and fish and other organisms suffocate in oxygen-depleted water

16 Thermal Pollution Thermal pollution: when the temperature of a body of water increases Can occur when power plants and other industries use water in their cooling systems and then discharge the warm water into a lake or river Can cause large fish kills if water is too warm for fish to survive Even if temp rises a few degrees effects content of dissolved oxygen

17 Groundwater Pollution
Pollutants enter groundwater when polluted surface water percolates down from Earth’s surface Any pollution of surface water can affect grondwater Ex. Pesticides, herbicides, chemical fertilizers, petroleum products

18 Cleaning up Groundwater Pollution
Even if groundwater pollution could be stopped groundwater would remain polluted for generations Groundwater recharges slowly Pollutants can cling to materials that make up an aquifer

19 Ocean Pollution Pollutants are often dumped directly into oceans
Legally ships can dump wastewater and garbage overboard in some parts of ocean 85% of ocean pollution, comes from activities on land Coastal estuaries, coral reefs, coastal marshes are most affected by pollution

20 Ocean Pollution Oil spills
Each year approximately 37 million gallons of oil from tanker accidents are spilled into the oceans Major oil spills occur sporadically that spill many more gallons Account for only 5% of oil pollution in oceans, but have dramatic effects

21 Water Pollution and Ecosystems
Many pollutants accumulate in the environment because they do not decompose quickly As pollutant levels rise, can threaten entire ecosystem

22 Water Pollution and Ecosystems
Biomagnifications: buildup of pollutants at higher levels of the food chain Pollutant  insect larvae, crustaceans  hundred of these organisms eaten by small fish  hundred of small fish eaten by large fish  predator bird eats 10 big fish Each organism stores pesticide in its tissues, so at each step along food chain concentration of pesticide passed on to next organism increases

23 Cleaning Up Water Pollution
Clean Water Act: restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation’s water 1972 Make all surface water clean enough for fishing and swimming by 1983 Goal not achieved, but much progress has been made

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