Presentation on theme: "The Harlem Renaissance"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Harlem Renaissance Chapter 21: Section 4The Harlem Renaissance
2 What was the Harlem Renaissance? Flowering of a unique African American identity and cultureRedefined African American expressionArtistic and literary movement of African-American culture during the 1920s and 1930sProduced famous writers such as Langston HughesFamous musicians such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington.
3 What led to the Harlem Renaissance? The Great MigrationLocke: "something like a spiritual emancipation"Rise of radical black intellectualsLocke, Marcus Garvey, W.E.B. DuBoisNew African American goals
4 The Great MigrationBetween 1910 and 1920, hundreds of thousands of African Americans moved north Went to big cities looking for jobsBy the end of decade, 40% of African Americans lived in urban cities
5 Tension in the NorthNorthern cities didn't welcome this massive influx of African AmericansTensions escalatedSummer of 1919: About 25 urban race riotsLed to an increased desire to improve African Americans' situation
6 African-American Goals: NAACP Founded in 1909Urged African Americans to protest racial violenceW.E.B. DuBois: Founding member of NAACP Led parade to protest such violenceLed struggle for civil rightsJames Weldon Johnson: leader of NAACPfought for legislation to protect African American rightsAntilynching laws made priorityNew, more militant voice of African Americans
7 African American Goals: Marcus Garvey and the UNIA Believed African Americans should build separate societyDifferent, more radical message of black prideUNIA founded in 1914Appealed to followers with messages of pride, mass meetings, parades, etc.Practical plans to promote African American businessesEncouraged followers to return to AfricaSupport declined in mid-1920'sLeft behind legacy of newly awakened black pride, independence, and celebration of heritage
8 Harlem, New York Many who migrated north moved to Harlem World's largest African American urban communityOvercrowding, unemployment, and poverty persisted Problems in the 1920s were eclipsed by a flowering of creativity... the Harlem RenaissanceBecame a center of culture and creativity
9 African American Writers Above all, the Harlem Renaissance was a literary movementLed by well-educated, middle class African AmericansExpressed new pride in African American experienceCelebrated heritage and wrote about life's trials
10 African American Writers: Langston HughesAn African American poetHis poetry moved to the tempo of jazzPoems described the difficult lives of working-class African AmericansHe embraced his African American culture and background while living in a white dominated society
11 Langston Hughes Poem: "I, Too" I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, But I laugh, And eat well, And grow strong.Tomorrow, I'll be at the table When company comes. Nobody'll dare Say to me, "Eat in the kitchen," Then.Besides, They'll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed-- I, too, am America.
12 African American Writers: Claude McKay Novelist and poet with militant voiceUrged African Americans to resist prejudice and discriminationWrote about the pain of life as a black man in a "white world"
13 African American Writers: Zora Neale Hurston Novelist and poetportrayed lives of poor, unschooled southern blacks "the greatest cultural wealth of the continent"Celebrated the common-people's art: the folkways and values of those who survived slavery
14 African American Performers The Harlem Renaissance was more than writers and intellectualsPerformers gained large followingsRoland Hayes: concert singerEthel Waters: singer and actress on BroadwayRaul Robeson: major dramatic actor
15 African Americans and Jazz Jazz was born in the early 20th century in New Orleans, where musicians blended instrumental ragtime and vocal bluse into an exuberant new sound.It quickly spread to cities such as Kansas City, Memphis, and New York CIty, and it became a popular music for dancing. During the 1920s, Harlem pulsed the sounds of jazz, luring admirers of the music to places such as the Apollo Theater and Cotton Club.Famous artist included Louis Armstrong, Bessie Smith, Duke Ellington, and many more.