Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Section one Mr. Snyder American History."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 8 Section one Mr. Snyder American History
The BIG Idea Thomas Jefferson’s election began a new era in American government. Main Ideas of Section One Main Ideas of Section One The election of 1800 marked the first peaceful transition in power from one political party to another. President Jefferson’s beliefs about the federal government were reflected in his policies. Marbury v. Madison increased the power of the judicial branch of government.
Main Idea One Federalists John Adams and Charles C. Pinckney ran against Democratic- Republicans Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.
Election of 1800 John Adams and the Federalists Rule by wealthy class Strong federal government Emphasis on manufacturing Loose interpretation of the Constitution British alliance Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic- Republicans Rule by the people Strong state governments Emphasis on agriculture Strict interpretation of the Constitution French alliance
Problem ! Jefferson and Burr tied, with 73 electoral votes each. Solution: The House broke the tie by selecting Jefferson to be president; Burr became vice president.
Happy 12 th Birthday ! The tie led to the passage of the Twelfth Amendment, which provided for a separate ballot for president and vice president in the next election.
Main Idea Two ! Democratic-Republican–controlled Congress helped put his republican ideas into practice. Allowed the hated Alien and Sedition Acts to expire. Lowered military spending. Got rid of domestic taxes. Believed main functions of federal government were Protecting the nation from foreign threats Delivering mail. Collecting customs duties Kept some Federalist ideas, like Bank of the United States....
John Marshall John Marshall: (1755–1835) Federalist leader who served in the House of Representatives and as U.S. Secretary of State, he later became the Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, establishing in Marbury v. Madison the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review.
Main Idea THREE ! Marbury v. Madison William Marbury appointed justice of peace by President Adams just before he left office. Marbury’s commission was not delivered; Jefferson took office. Marbury sued Jefferson administration to get his commission.
Marbury Vs. Madison The law Marbury based his claim on was unconstitutional—Judiciary Act of 1789. Ruled that the Supreme Court did not hear cases like this one, according to the Constitution; thus, the law that Marbury used was unconstitutional.
Importance of Judicial Review Chief Justice John Marshall wrote Court’s opinion in Marbury v. Madison. Ruling established judicial review— Court’s power to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional. Made judicial branch equal to other two branches of government.
Section Assessment Section 1: Jefferson Becomes President 1. Who challenged John Adams in the election of 1800? Charles C. PinckneyThomas JeffersonAaron Burrall of the above 2. Who finally chose Thomas Jefferson as president after a tie vote? the electoral collegethe House of Representativesthe Senatevoters, with a recount 3. Why was the Twelfth Amendment added to the Constitution? to guarantee freedom of speechto eliminate the electoral collegeto create a separate ballot for president and vice presidentto authorize Congress to purchase Louisiana from the French 4. Which of the following was one of Jefferson’s beliefs? Government should be enlarged.Government should be kept small.The military should be expanded at all costs.Taxes on wealthy citizens should be raised. 5. What important power was established by the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison? the line-item vetoterm limits for Congressseparate ballots for president and vice presidentjudicial review What important power was established by the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison? the line-item vetoterm limits for Congressseparate ballots for president and vice presidentjudicial review