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1 World History, Culture and Geography Causes of WWI.

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1 1 World History, Culture and Geography Causes of WWI

2 2 Long Term Causes - Nationalism Starting with the French Revolution National identities become important, desire dominance and prestige 1871 Germany and Italy become nations – they want to catch up with Britain, France Pride in country partly based upon industrial capacity, colonies

3 3 Long Term Causes - Industrialization 1850’s on sees industrialization spread to continental Europe Economic competition between nations begin – Germany quickly gaining on Britain Transportation, communication, and military advances continue Need for markets and raw materials => imperialism

4 4 Long Term Causes - Imperialism Nationalism and industrialization tied to colonial holdings Competition for colonies increases tensions European nations military, political, and economic domination of Africa and Asia build confidence

5 5 Long Term Causes - Militarism Between 1870 and 1914, European nations increase military spend by 400% Many believed war was coming, began preparing German, Russian Generals extremely powerful Arms race developed

6 6 Short Term Causes Entangling alliances pull everyone into the war Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy) Germany secretly told Austria-Hungary they would support them no matter what happened – called the “blank check”

7 7 Short Term Causes Triple Entente (England, France, and Russia) – Treaty of Friendship France was concerned about Germany’s growing military England was concerned with Germany’s navy

8 8 Precipitating Events Moroccan Crisis between France and Germany Balkan Wars between 1912-13 raised tensions between Russia, Serbia, Germany, and Austria- Hungary Balkans considered the “Powder Keg of Europe” – so many countries had national interests in the region

9 9 The Domino Effect In June 1914, Archduke Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, travels to Sarajevo with his wife to review the Austrian Hungarian army on maneuvers.

10 10 The Domino Effect (1)June 28, 1914 – Austrian Archduke Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia A nineteen year-old member of the Black Hand, Gavrilo Princip, jumped from the sidewalk onto the Archduke's car and fired 2 shots. The Archduke and his wife were killed.

11 11 Austria-Hungary issues an ultimatum to the Serbian government in order to allow Austrian forces to investigate the assassination and stop anti-Austrian activities in Bosnia

12 12 The Domino Effect: War Starts... 2) Serbia refuses the ultimatum, Austria- Hungary declares war (3) Russia mobilizes an army to defend Serbia (4) Germany declares war on Russia

13 13 The Domino Effect War Starts... (5) France declares war on Germany (6) Germany invades Belgium to attack France (7) Britain declares war on Germany

14 14 The Domino Effect: War Starts... Italy decides that its chances to gain land are better with France, Britain, and Russia. Italy abandons its pre-wartime alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary and joins the war on the side of France, Britain, and Russia.

15 15 Most of the fighting takes place in Western Europe, even though the conflict started in the Balkans in Eastern Europe

16 16 Fighting spreads to the colonies as well =global war!

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