Thermal Power Station A In the boiler, the fuel burns in air, making heat. G The heat boils the water and turns it to steam. E The steam travels along pipes and steam pressure turns the turbine. I The turbine drives the alternator. H The alternator generates electricity. C A step up transformer increases the voltage of the electricity. B The electricity travels to homes and factories along power cables. D In the condenser, cooling water cools the steam. F The recycled water is fed back to the boiler to be used again.
Power station efficiency Generating electricity in a typical thermal power station has an efficiency around 35%. Cyclical processes cannot convert all thermal energy to work. Excess heat can be used in combined heat and power plants.
Degraded energy energy lost due to cyclical process of converting heat into work (2 nd law of thermodynamics) Fossil fueltypical efficiency maximum efficiency coal35%42% oil38%45% natural gas45%52%
Construct a Sankey diagram for a bouncing ball of mass 1kg dropping from 1m which bounces to 70% of its height each bounce.
Generator (alternator) Coil rotates in a magnetic field, kinetic energy is converted to electrical energy
Coal-fired thermal power station, Sofia, Bulgaria (0.5GW)
Susquehanna, Nuclear Power plant, Pennsylvania, USA (1.2GW)
Nesjavellir, Geothermal Power Station, Iceland (0.6GW)
Power generation -CoalOil Natural Gas NuclearHydrootherTotal Electricity (TW ｈ /year) 8,2631,1114,3012,7313,28856820,261 Proportion 41 ％ 5％5％ 21 ％ 13 ％ 16 ％ 3%100% Source of Electricity (World total year 2008) Sources of electricity in France in 2006