Presentation on theme: "–wave –crest –trough –breaker Objectives Describe the physical properties of waves. Explain how tides form. Compare and contrast various ocean currents."— Presentation transcript:
–wave –crest –trough –breaker Objectives Describe the physical properties of waves. Explain how tides form. Compare and contrast various ocean currents. Vocabulary Ocean Movements –tide –density current –surface current –upwelling
Ocean Movements A wave is a rhythmic movement that carries energy through space or matter, such as ocean water. Ocean Movements As an ocean wave passes, the water moves up and down in a circular pattern and returns to its original position.
Wave Characteristics A crest is the highest point of a wave. Ocean Movements A trough is the lowest point of a wave. The vertical distance between crest and trough is the wave height; the horizontal crest-to-crest distance is the wavelength.
Wave Characteristics The wavelength determines the wave base, which is the depth to which the wave disturbs the water. Ocean Movements Wave speed increases with wavelength.
Wave Characteristics Wave Height Ocean Movements –Wave heights depend upon three factors: wind speed, wind duration, and fetch. –Fetch refers to the expanse of water that the wind blows across. –Large storm waves can be much higher than average.
Wave Characteristics Breaking Waves Ocean Movements –Ocean waves begin to lose energy and slow down near the shore because of friction with the ocean bottom. –As the water becomes shallower, incoming wave crests gradually catch up with the slower wave crests ahead. –Breakers are waves where the crests collapse forward when the wave becomes higher, steeper, and unstable as it nears shore.
Tides Tides are the periodic rise and fall of sea level. Ocean Movements The highest level to which water rises is known as high tide, and the lowest level is called low tide. Because of differences in topography and latitude, the tidal range—the difference between high tide and low tide—varies from place to place. Generally, a daily cycle of high and low tides takes 24 hours and 50 minutes.
Tides Ocean Movements Differences in topography and latitude cause three different daily tide cycles. Areas with semidiurnal cycles experience two high tides per day. Areas with mixed cycles have one pronounced and one smaller tide each day. Areas with diurnal cycles have one high tide per day.
Causes of Tides The basic causes of tides are the gravitational attraction among Earth, the Moon and the Sun, as well as the fact that gravitational attraction decreases with distance. Ocean Movements Both Earth and the Moon orbit around a common center of gravity. As a result, Earth and the Moon experience gravitational and centrifugal forces that generate tidal bulges on opposite sides of Earth.
Causes of Tides The Sun’s Influence Ocean Movements –The gravitational attraction of the Sun and Earth’s orbital motion around the Sun also generate tides. –Lunar tides are more than twice as high as those caused by the Sun because the Moon is much closer to Earth. –Solar tides can either enhance or diminish lunar tides. Spring tides occur when the Sun, the Moon, and Earth are aligned, causing high tides to be higher than normal and low tides to be lower than normal. During neap tides, high tides are lower and low tides are higher than normal.
Causes of Tides The Sun’s Influence Ocean Movements
Ocean Currents A density current moves slowly in the deep ocean and is caused by differences in the temperature and salinity of ocean water, which in turn affect density. Ocean Movements Surface currents are wind-driven currents that affect mainly the upper few hundred meters of the ocean and can move as fast as 100 km per day. Surface currents follow predictable patterns influenced by Earth’s global wind systems.
Ocean Currents Gyres Ocean Movements –The continents deflect ocean currents to the north and south causing closed circular current systems, called gyres, to develop. –There are five major gyres: the North Pacific, the North Atlantic, the South Pacific, the South Atlantic, and the Indian Ocean. –The parts of all gyres closest to the equator move towards the west as equatorial currents until they are deflected toward the poles by a landmass. –After cooling in the polar regions, the current, deflected by landmasses, moves back toward the equator.
Upwelling Upwelling is the upward motion of ocean water. Ocean Movements Areas of upwelling exist mainly off the western coasts of continents in the trade-wind belts. Upwelling waters are rich in nutrients, which support abundant populations of marine life.
Section Assessment 1.Match the following terms with their definitions. ___ crest ___ trough ___ tide ___ upwelling ___ breakers Ocean Movements A.the upward motion of ocean water, caused by an offshore wind B.the lowest point of a wave C.the periodic rise and fall of sea level. D.the highest point of a wave E.waves that become higher, steeper, and unstable which causes their crest to collapse D B C A E
Section Assessment 2.Why are lunar tides much higher than solar tides? Ocean Movements Lunar tides are more than twice as high as solar tides because the Moon is much closer to Earth.
Section Assessment Ocean Movements 3.Identify whether the following statements are true or false. ______Gyres rotate in a counterclockwise direction in the northern hemisphere. ______ The water in a wave moves steadily forward. ______Wave speed increases with wavelength. ______Spring and neap tides alternate every four weeks. false true false