TIME PERIOD: (1870 to 1900) BIG IDEAS ◦ Immigrant ◦ Urbanization ESSENTIAL QUESTION (Please answer) ◦ Why do people immigrate to other countries? Make a list of some “PUSH” and “PULL” factors
Possible Push Factors ◦ Political persecution, religious persecution, poor economy, scarcity of land, rising population, unemployment Possible Pull Factors ◦ Economic opportunity, religious freedom, political freedom, land
1866 to 1915, 25 million immigrants to U.S from Europe Before 1880, mostly from northern and western Europe (“old immigrants”) ◦ WHERE? After 1880, mostly from southern and eastern Europe (“new immigrants”) ◦ WHERE?
Why did many Chinese immigrate to California in 1848? 1851 to 1883, 300,000 Chinese arrived By 1920, 200,000 Japanese lived on West Coast Angel Island Why did these two groups settle on the west coast?
Transportation technology of the time? Steamship voyage ◦ 1-3 weeks from Europe ◦ 3 weeks from Asia Many traveled in STEERAGE ◦ Cheapest accommodations; in ship’s cargo area at bottom of ship ◦ Why? ◦ Titanic connection ◦ READ ALOUD “THE LOWER DECK”
Do you guys have any relatives that passed through Ellis Island? Immigration station that inspected immigrants for disease, mental illness, crime record, etc. Would send immigrants back to their home country if failed test (see test on page 463) Immigrants were treated well Asian immigrants went to Angel Island off of San Francisco, but unlike Ellis Island, they were treated very poorly ◦ Why do you think there was a difference?
What is it? What are the pros and cons of it? Some of the new immigrants were not interested in assimilation or becoming American They wanted to return to their home country with enough money saved to buy a farm Connection to present-day immigrants from Central America? Most immigrants came to save enough money to bring rest of family to US Most wanted to become American citizens but retain some of their culture and customs ◦ Why was this important to them?
1890, twice as many Irish in NYC than Dublin What is the difference between “melting pot” analogy and “mosaic” analogy? Americanization Movement: designed to assimilate immigrants into the dominant culture. ◦ Hyphenated Americans ◦ What was the dominate culture? Attributes? ◦ Who wanted immigrants to assimilate? ◦ Did immigrants completely assimilate?
Nativism: favoritism to native-born Americans Social and economic discrimination, but religious freedom preserved Nativists felt that immigrants could not become “good” citizens Nativists justify their arguments for immigrant restrictions on Southern and Eastern Europeans and Asians using Social Darwinism American Protective Association and the “Catholic Menace”
What some problems associated with an overcrowded house? Do people living in urban areas experience similar issues? Which? How?
Inventions and improvements in farming caused fewer laborers to be needed in the fields Where do you think these farm laborers went? Why? Many of these farm laborers were African American ◦ Blacks moved to northern cities like Detroit and Chicago for jobs (pull) and escape racial violence (push) ◦ City life for blacks was nonetheless difficult- discrimination and segregation, job competition with immigrants
Garbage, clean water, sewage, overcrowded, crime, vice Tenement living-Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives ◦ One tub per floor ◦ Interior apartments-no circulation of air ◦ Disease and infant mortality ◦ Crime ◦ Unsanitary conditions-dark and dank, pests Wealthy flee cities to suburbs
As problems in cities pile up, concerned citizens (reformers) sought to make things better for poor city people Settlement Houses ◦ Reformers established these ◦ They were community centers in slum neighborhoods that assisted people in the area ◦ Food, shelter, education, religion
All cities’ problems prompted solutions Electric lights, paved streets, electric trolley cars, Suspension bridges using steel cables ◦ Brooklyn Bridge and Roebling, NJ (Extra Credit Assignment) ◦ View short video on Brooklyn Bridge Steel girders and skyscrapers Parks New tenement designs