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Population and Urbanization

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Presentation on theme: "Population and Urbanization"— Presentation transcript:

1 Population and Urbanization
Chapter 15

2 Demography and Fertility
Demography is a field of sociology that examines population size, composition, and distribution. Demography is used to examine the effects of population on society Fertility is the level of childbearing for an individual or population. This is affected by the demography. How many women? Health and nutrition?

3 Birth Rates and Mortality
Crude birth rate…the number of live births per people in a given year. 14.2 in 2000 27 in 1947 (baby boom) Some nations have high crude birth rates but also have high infant mortality rates. Mortality is the incidence of death in a population. Crude death rate…number of deaths per 1000 in a given year. Infant mortality rate…number of deaths with infants under 1 year.

4 Migration Migration is the movement of people from one geographic area to another (forced or voluntary). Wars Persecution Natural disasters Political unrest

5 Migration Two types of movement:
Immigration is the movement of people into a geographic area to take up residency. Pull factors…people are pulled to an area Freedom, democratic government etc… Emigration is the movement of people out of a geographic area to take up residency elsewhere. Push factors…people are pushed from an area Natural disasters, tyrannical government

6 Population Composition
Population composition is a part of demography that looks at the make up of the population including: Age Sex Marital status Education Occupation Income Size of household

7 Population Between 2000 and 2030, almost all of the world’s 1.4 % annual population growth will occur in low-income countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. 6 billion in 1999, 7 billion in 2011. Predicted to be 8 billion by 2023 and 10 billion by 2050. Many feel Earth can’t support that

8 Growth in the World’s Population

9 Leading Causes of Death in the United States
1900 Rank 1997 Influenza /pneumonia 1 Heart disease Tuberculosis 2 Cancer Intestinal disease 3 Stroke 4 Chronic lung disease Cerebral hemorrhage 5 Accidents

10 Leading Causes of Death in the United States
1900 Rank 1997 Kidney disease 6 Pneumonia and influenza Accidents 7 Diabetes Cancer 8 HIV Diseases in early infancy 9 Suicide Diphtheria 10 Homicide


12 Theories of Population Growth
The Malthusian Perspective The Marxist Perspective The Neo-Malthusian Perspective Demographic Transition Theory

13 Malthusian Perspective
If left unchecked, the population would exceed the available food supply. Population would increase in a geometric progression (2, 4, 8, …) . The food supply would increase by an arithmetic progression (1, 2, 3, ). Believed only acceptable check on population is moral restraint. People should practice abstinence.

14 Marxist Perspective Using technology, food can be produced for a growing population. Capitalism is the root of the problem Wealthy control the resources and means of food production. Overpopulation will lead to the eventual destruction of capitalism. Workers will become dissatisfied and develop class-consciousness because of shared oppression.

15 The Neo-Malthusian Perspective
More recent movement. Overpopulation and rapid population growth result in global environmental problems. Believe in use of birth control People should be encouraging zero population growth. Population balances…does not grow

16 Demographic Transition Theory
Stage 1: Preindustrial Societies - little population growth, high birth rates offset by high death rates. Stage 2: Early Industrialization - significant population growth, birth rates are relatively high, death rates decline.

17 Demographic Transition Theory
Stage 3: Advanced Industrialization and Urbanization - very little population growth occurs, birth rates and death rates are low. Stage 4: Postindustrialization - birth rates decline as more women are employed and raising children becomes more costly.

18 Figure 15.3: The Demographic Transition.
Fig. 15-3, p. 457

19 Urbanization

20 Development of a City City… a relatively permanent and dense settlement of people with non-agricultural activities. Three preconditions: A favorable physical environment. An advanced technology that could produce a social surplus. A well-developed political system to provide social stability to the economic system.

21 Earliest Cities About 3500 B.C. in Mesopotamia
,000 people Rome grew to 650,000 around 100

22 An increasing proportion of the world’s population lives in cities
An increasing proportion of the world’s population lives in cities. How is this scene in Lagos, Nigeria, similar to and different from major U.S. cities? p. 460

23 Concentric Zone Model Functionalist Perspective)
Each area of the city is developed depending on land use. Areas move from center circularly. Invasion…new type of land use evolves in occupied area Succession…the invading land use eventually dominates the area Gentrification…middle and upper middle classes move into city and renovate.

24 Sector and Multiple Nuclei
Sector model emphasizes the importance of terrain and transportation in the layout of a city. Multiple Nuclei model says that cities have numerous centers of development.

25 Figure 15.4: Three Models of the City.
Fig. 15-4, p. 464

26 Conflict Perspective Conflict theorists believe that cities do not grow or decline by chance…they believe they are the products of capitalist decisions. Cities are developed based on exchange value…the profits that the wealthy make from development.

27 Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
Simmel's View of City Life Urban life is stimulating; it shapes people's thoughts and actions. Many urban residents avoid emotional involvement with each other and try to ignore events taking place around them. Urban living can be liberating - people have opportunities for individualism and autonomy.

28 Suburbs Since World War II, the U.S. population has shifted as people moved to the suburbs. Suburbanites rely on urban centers for employment but pay property taxes to suburban governments and school districts. Leads to fiscal crisis in cities.

29 Fig. 15-5, p. 471 Figure 15.5: The World’s Ten Largest Metropolises.
2000 population in millions. Fig. 15-5, p. 471

30 Figure 15.6: Growth of the World’s Population.
Fig. 15-6, p. 474

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