2 Demography and Fertility Demography is a field of sociology that examines population size, composition, and distribution.Demography is used to examine the effects of population on societyFertility is the level of childbearing for an individual or population.This is affected by the demography.How many women?Health and nutrition?
3 Birth Rates and Mortality Crude birth rate…the number of live births per people in a given year.14.2 in 200027 in 1947 (baby boom)Some nations have high crude birth rates but also have high infant mortality rates.Mortality is the incidence of death in a population.Crude death rate…number of deaths per 1000 in a given year.Infant mortality rate…number of deaths with infants under 1 year.
4 MigrationMigration is the movement of people from one geographic area to another (forced or voluntary).WarsPersecutionNatural disastersPolitical unrest
5 Migration Two types of movement: Immigration is the movement of people into a geographic area to take up residency.Pull factors…people are pulled to an areaFreedom, democratic government etc…Emigration is the movement of people out of a geographic area to take up residency elsewhere.Push factors…people are pushed from an areaNatural disasters, tyrannical government
6 Population Composition Population composition is a part of demography that looks at the make up of the population including:AgeSexMarital statusEducationOccupationIncomeSize of household
7 PopulationBetween 2000 and 2030, almost all of the world’s 1.4 % annual population growth will occur in low-income countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.6 billion in 1999, 7 billion in 2011.Predicted to be 8 billion by 2023 and 10 billion by 2050.Many feel Earth can’t support that
12 Theories of Population Growth The Malthusian PerspectiveThe Marxist PerspectiveThe Neo-Malthusian PerspectiveDemographic Transition Theory
13 Malthusian Perspective If left unchecked, the population would exceed the available food supply.Population would increase in a geometric progression (2, 4, 8, …) .The food supply would increase by an arithmetic progression (1, 2, 3, ).Believed only acceptable check on population is moral restraint.People should practice abstinence.
14 Marxist PerspectiveUsing technology, food can be produced for a growing population.Capitalism is the root of the problemWealthy control the resources and means of food production.Overpopulation will lead to the eventual destruction of capitalism.Workers will become dissatisfied and develop class-consciousness because of shared oppression.
15 The Neo-Malthusian Perspective More recent movement.Overpopulation and rapid population growth result in global environmental problems.Believe in use of birth controlPeople should be encouraging zero population growth.Population balances…does not grow
16 Demographic Transition Theory Stage 1: Preindustrial Societies - little population growth, high birth rates offset by high death rates.Stage 2: Early Industrialization - significant population growth, birth rates are relatively high, death rates decline.
17 Demographic Transition Theory Stage 3: Advanced Industrialization and Urbanization - very little population growth occurs, birth rates and death rates are low.Stage 4: Postindustrialization - birth rates decline as more women are employed and raising children becomes more costly.
18 Figure 15.3: The Demographic Transition. Fig. 15-3, p. 457
20 Development of a CityCity… a relatively permanent and dense settlement of people with non-agricultural activities.Three preconditions:A favorable physical environment.An advanced technology that could produce a social surplus.A well-developed political system to provide social stability to the economic system.
21 Earliest Cities About 3500 B.C. in Mesopotamia ,000 peopleRome grew to 650,000 around 100
22 An increasing proportion of the world’s population lives in cities An increasing proportion of the world’s population lives in cities. How is this scene in Lagos, Nigeria, similar to and different from major U.S. cities?p. 460
23 Concentric Zone Model Functionalist Perspective) Each area of the city is developed depending on land use. Areas move from center circularly.Invasion…new type of land use evolves in occupied areaSuccession…the invading land use eventually dominates the areaGentrification…middle and upper middle classes move into city and renovate.
24 Sector and Multiple Nuclei Sector model emphasizes the importance of terrain and transportation in the layout of a city.Multiple Nuclei model says that cities have numerous centers of development.
25 Figure 15.4: Three Models of the City. Fig. 15-4, p. 464
26 Conflict PerspectiveConflict theorists believe that cities do not grow or decline by chance…they believe they are the products of capitalist decisions.Cities are developed based on exchange value…the profits that the wealthy make from development.
27 Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Simmel's View of City LifeUrban life is stimulating; it shapes people's thoughts and actions.Many urban residents avoid emotional involvement with each other and try to ignore events taking place around them.Urban living can be liberating - people have opportunities for individualism and autonomy.
28 SuburbsSince World War II, the U.S. population has shifted as people moved to the suburbs.Suburbanites rely on urban centers for employment but pay property taxes to suburban governments and school districts.Leads to fiscal crisis in cities.
29 Fig. 15-5, p. 471 Figure 15.5: The World’s Ten Largest Metropolises. 2000 population in millions.Fig. 15-5, p. 471
30 Figure 15.6: Growth of the World’s Population. Fig. 15-6, p. 474