2 Linnaeus was the scientist who developed scientific naming system. Linnaeus’s System of ClassificationClassification is a way to organize living things into groups according to characteristics.KingdomTaxonomy – classifying organisms and assigning scientific names.PhylumWhy use a scientific name?Because many organisms have several common names that vary due to region or cultures and it becomes confusing…ClassHow to write a scientific name:Genus speciesOrderNotice only the first letter is capitalized while everything else is lowercase. Both words must be underlined unless written in cursive or italics, then no underline is used.FamilyEx. Puma, cougar, panther, mountain lion, ghost cat – all the same animal…GenusSpecies…But the scientific name stays the same no matter where you goEx. Felis concolor is the scientific name for a mountain lion.Comprise scientific name aka binomial nomenclature
3 Classification of Ursus Arctos All encompassing – many organisms at Kingdom levelGrizzly bearBlack bearGiant pandaRed foxAbert squirrelCoral snakeSea starKingKINGDOM AnimaliaPhilipPHYLUM ChordataCameAs you move down the levels, the animals become more and more specific to the levelCLASS MammaliaOverORDER CarnivoraForFAMILY UrsidaeGoodGENUS UrsusOnly ONE organism at Species levelSoupSPECIES Ursus arctos
4 Traditional Classification vs. Cladogram AppendagesConical ShellsCrustaceansGastropodCrabBarnacleLimpetCrabBarnacleLimpetMolted exoskeletonIncorrect !SegmentationTiny free-swimming larvaAncestorTRADITIONAL CLASSIFICATIONCLADOGRAMBased on “looks” of organisms
5 Traditional Classification vs. Cladogram AppendagesConical ShellsCrustaceansGastropod= derived character – characteristics that appear in recent lineage, but not in older members.CrabBarnacleLimpetCrabBarnacleLimpetSessileMolted exoskeletonCorrect!SegmentationTiny free-swimming larvaAncestorTRADITIONAL CLASSIFICATIONCLADOGRAMBased on Evolutionary Path and DNA
6 Bacteria! 6 Kingdoms! NO nucleus Nucleus Living Things Eukaryotic cellsProkaryotic cellsNO nucleusare characterized byNucleusImportant characteristicsand differingwhich place them inDomain EukaryaCell wall structuressuch aswhich is subdivided intowhich place them in* Kingdom Plantae* Kingdom Protista* Kingdom Fungi* Kingdom AnimaliaDomain BacteriaDomain Archaeawhich coincides withwhich coincides with* Kingdom Eubacteria* Kingdom Archaebacteria6 Kingdoms!
7 Key Characteristics of Kingdoms Both Bacterial KingdomsClassification of Living ThingsDOMAINKINGDOMCELL TYPECELL STRUCTURESNUMBER OF CELLSMODE OF NUTRITIONEXAMPLESBacteriaEubacteriaProkaryoteCell walls with peptidoglycanUnicellularAutotroph or heterotrophStreptococcus, Escherichia coliArchaeaArchaebacteriaProkaryoteCell walls without peptidoglycanUnicellularAutotroph or heterotrophMethanogens, halophilesProtistaEukaryoteCell walls of cellulose in some; some have chloroplastsMost unicellular; some colonial; some multicellularAutotroph or heterotrophAmoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelpFungiEukaryoteCell walls of chitinMost multicellular; some unicellularHeterotrophMushrooms, yeastsEukaryaPlantaeEukaryoteCell walls of cellulose; chloroplastsMulticellularAutotrophMosses, ferns, flowering plantsAnimaliaEukaryoteNo cell walls or chloroplastsMulticellularHeterotrophSponges, worms, insects, fishes, mammals
8 Cladograms of Six Kingdoms BacteriaDOMAIN ARCHAEAFungiAnimaliaPlantaeDOMAIN EUKARYAKingdomsEubacteriaArchaebacteriaProtistaPlantaeFungiAnimaliaDOMAIN BACTERIAProtista