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Classification Review

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1 Classification Review
Why do we have to classify organisms? Or animals? So we will first of all know what they are. Know if it is poisons or dangerous. Another important reason is so that we can have a common name across the universe.

2 A. How are living things classified?
Biologists use Taxonomy- science of classifying and giving a scientific name to organisms. Binomial nomenclature- two word naming system. Each species name has two parts: Genus name and Species name, usually based on Latin or Greek; ex- dogs belong to species Canis familiaris . Taxonomy is the science of classifying and naming organisms. This allows people communicate about organisms, not just in the USA but all over the world. If you take a bull dog to Europe it will still be called a bull dog. It may sound different because of languages barriers or accents but the bull dog is still a bull dog all over the universe. A binomial nomenclature is a two word naming system. This allows scientist all over the world to identify a bull dog as a bull dog. This helps when you see a name of an organism that you have never come into contact before because it can let you know very important things fast (if you know what the words mean) a lot of then are Greek or Latin based so you can determine if an animal is poisonous just by its name.

3 Before Linnaeus there was no order to taxonomy.
B. Who started all this? Carolus Linnaeus- Swedish botanist, 18th Century, developed two name system. Before Linnaeus there was no order to taxonomy. Linnaeus’s system had 7 levels of organization, each level called a taxon (taxa-pl.) Linnaeus’s placed all living things in to one of two Kingdoms- Animalia or Plantae Today we have 6 kingdoms The man that create this naming system was Carolus Linnaeus! He was a Swedish botanist. He created a seven leveled organizational tool called a taxon.

4 Linnaeus’s System of Classification
King Kingdom Scientific Name= Genus and Species Ex: Homo sapien Rules: Genus is always capitalized and species is always lower case. Both are always italicized or underlined Phillip Phylum Came Class Over Order Family This is an newmoic that will help you remember the system of classification in order. King Phillip Came Over For Great Spaghetti. For Great Genus Spaghetti Species

5 Classification of Ursus arctos
Section 18-1 Grizzly bear Black bear Giant panda Red fox Abert squirrel Coral snake Sea star KINGDOM Animalia PHYLUM Chordata CLASS Mammalia ORDER Carnivora This can be a confusing chart. When you use this chart the top layer is kingdom Animalia so all the organisms on the top row follow up the Animalia category. The second row are all organisms on the second row are in the Chordata category which means they have vertebrates. The third row are all the organisms from the top row that are Mammals which falls under the Mammalia category. The forth row are all the organisms from the top row that are carnivores so they are classified as the Canivora category. The fifth row is the family category and all the organisms left are in the bear category. Lastly the Species category is what makes the name most specific it names it as a Grizzly bear. Scientist use traits and characteristics when classifying organisms. FAMILY Ursidae Species name is most specific! GENUS Ursus SPECIES Ursus arctos Go to Section:


7 Dichotomous key Series of questions that can be answered in only one or two ways. Once you complete the question series you will be able to identify your organisms. Question are very specific and based on physical appearances You will be practicing using a dichotomous key today. I feel it is somewhat like a puzzle!


9 Classification of Living Things
Figure Key Characteristics of Kingdoms and Domains Section 18-3 Classification of Living Things DOMAIN KINGDOM CELL TYPE CELL STRUCTURES NUMBER OF CELLS MODE OF NUTRITION EXAMPLES Bacteria Eubacteria Prokaryote Cell walls No nucleus Cilia, flagella Unicellular Autotroph/ heterotroph Strep., E- coli Archaea Archaebacteria Prokaryote Cell walls No nucleus Cilia, flagella Unicellular Autotroph or heterotroph X-tremophiles Protista Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose in some; some have chloroplastscilia, flagella Most unicellular; some multicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp Eukarya Animalia Eukaryote No cell walls or chloroplasts Multicellular Heterotroph Sponges, worms, insects, fishes, mammals Fungi Eukaryote Cell walls of chitin Most multicellular; some unicellular Heterotroph Mushrooms, yeasts Plantae Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose; chloroplasts Multicellular Autotroph Mosses, ferns, flowering plants This is a chart that is a list all the names in the kingdoms. It also states what cell type these organisms have. Go to Section:

10 E. Kingdom Archaebacteria
Only recently recognized as a separate bacteria kingdom Live in very extreme environments Have a cell wall and some use flagella for movement Unicellular – single celled Prokaryote – simple cell with no nucleus Reproduce asexually Can be helpful & harmful

11 F. Kingdom Eubacteria Largest of the two bacteria kingdoms & can live almost anywhere Have cell walls and some use flagella for movement Unicellular – single celled Prokaryote – simple cell with no nucleus Reproduce Asexually Can be helpful & harmful

12 G. Kingdom Protista Eukaryote – complex cell with a nucleus
Most reproduce asexually, some sexually Very diverse kingdom Can be autotrophs (producers) or heterotrophs (consumers) Can be unicellular or multicellular Examples: Algae, Amoeba, Diatoms, Euglena

13 H. Kingdom Fungi Eukaryote – complex cell with a nucleus
Multicellular (except yeast) Can reproduce asexually with spores or sexually Heterotrophs (consumers) – they eat! Important decomposers Examples: Mushrooms, mold, lichens

14 I. Kingdom Plantae Eukaryote – complex cell with a nucleus
Multicellular Autotrophs (producers) – they carry out photosynthesis Reproduce sexually with pollen or asexually Cell wall made of cellulose

15 J. Kingdom Animalia Hey! That’s You!
Eukaryote – complex cell with a nucleus Multicellular Heterotrophs (consumers) Reproduce sexually Examples: insects, fish, humans

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