Presentation on theme: "Classification Review"— Presentation transcript:
1 Classification Review Why do we have to classify organisms? Or animals? So we will first of all know what they are. Know if it is poisons or dangerous. Another important reason is so that we can have a common name across the universe.
2 A. How are living things classified? Biologists use Taxonomy- science of classifying and giving a scientific name to organisms.Binomial nomenclature- two word naming system. Each species name has two parts: Genus name and Species name, usually based on Latin or Greek; ex- dogs belong to species Canis familiaris .Taxonomy is the science of classifying and naming organisms. This allows people communicate about organisms, not just in the USA but all over the world. If you take a bull dog to Europe it will still be called a bull dog. It may sound different because of languages barriers or accents but the bull dog is still a bull dog all over the universe. A binomial nomenclature is a two word naming system. This allows scientist all over the world to identify a bull dog as a bull dog. This helps when you see a name of an organism that you have never come into contact before because it can let you know very important things fast (if you know what the words mean) a lot of then are Greek or Latin based so you can determine if an animal is poisonous just by its name.
3 Before Linnaeus there was no order to taxonomy. B. Who started all this?Carolus Linnaeus- Swedish botanist, 18th Century, developed two name system.Before Linnaeus there was no order to taxonomy.Linnaeus’s system had 7 levels of organization, each level called a taxon (taxa-pl.)Linnaeus’s placed all living things in to one of two Kingdoms- Animalia or PlantaeToday we have 6 kingdomsThe man that create this naming system was Carolus Linnaeus! He was a Swedish botanist. He created a seven leveled organizational tool called a taxon.
4 Linnaeus’s System of Classification KingKingdomScientific Name=Genus and SpeciesEx: Homo sapienRules:Genus is always capitalized and species is always lower case.Both are always italicized or underlinedPhillipPhylumCameClassOverOrderFamilyThis is an newmoic that will help you remember the system of classification in order. King Phillip Came Over For Great Spaghetti.ForGreatGenusSpaghettiSpecies
5 Classification of Ursus arctos Section 18-1Grizzly bearBlack bearGiant pandaRed foxAbert squirrelCoral snakeSea starKINGDOM AnimaliaPHYLUM ChordataCLASS MammaliaORDER CarnivoraThis can be a confusing chart. When you use this chart the top layer is kingdom Animalia so all the organisms on the top row follow up the Animalia category. The second row are all organisms on the second row are in the Chordata category which means they have vertebrates. The third row are all the organisms from the top row that are Mammals which falls under the Mammalia category. The forth row are all the organisms from the top row that are carnivores so they are classified as the Canivora category. The fifth row is the family category and all the organisms left are in the bear category. Lastly the Species category is what makes the name most specific it names it as a Grizzly bear. Scientist use traits and characteristics when classifying organisms.FAMILY UrsidaeSpecies name is most specific!GENUS UrsusSPECIES Ursus arctosGo to Section:
7 Dichotomous keySeries of questions that can be answered in only one or two ways.Once you complete the question series you will be able to identify your organisms.Question are very specific and based on physical appearancesYou will be practicing using a dichotomous key today. I feel it is somewhat like a puzzle!
9 Classification of Living Things Figure Key Characteristics of Kingdoms and DomainsSection 18-3Classification of Living ThingsDOMAINKINGDOMCELL TYPECELL STRUCTURESNUMBER OF CELLSMODE OF NUTRITIONEXAMPLESBacteriaEubacteriaProkaryoteCell wallsNo nucleusCilia, flagellaUnicellularAutotroph/ heterotrophStrep.,E- coliArchaeaArchaebacteriaProkaryoteCell wallsNo nucleusCilia, flagellaUnicellularAutotroph or heterotrophX-tremophilesProtistaEukaryoteCell walls of cellulose in some; some have chloroplastscilia, flagellaMost unicellular; some multicellularAutotroph or heterotrophAmoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelpEukaryaAnimaliaEukaryoteNo cell walls or chloroplastsMulticellularHeterotrophSponges, worms, insects, fishes, mammalsFungiEukaryoteCell walls of chitinMost multicellular; some unicellularHeterotrophMushrooms, yeastsPlantaeEukaryoteCell walls of cellulose; chloroplastsMulticellularAutotrophMosses, ferns, flowering plantsThis is a chart that is a list all the names in the kingdoms. It also states what cell type these organisms have.Go to Section:
10 E. Kingdom Archaebacteria Only recently recognized as a separate bacteria kingdomLive in very extreme environmentsHave a cell wall and some use flagella for movementUnicellular – single celledProkaryote – simple cell with no nucleusReproduce asexuallyCan be helpful & harmful
11 F. Kingdom EubacteriaLargest of the two bacteria kingdoms & can live almost anywhereHave cell walls and some use flagella for movementUnicellular – single celledProkaryote – simple cell with no nucleusReproduce AsexuallyCan be helpful & harmful
12 G. Kingdom Protista Eukaryote – complex cell with a nucleus Most reproduce asexually, some sexuallyVery diverse kingdomCan be autotrophs (producers) or heterotrophs (consumers)Can be unicellular or multicellularExamples: Algae, Amoeba, Diatoms, Euglena
13 H. Kingdom Fungi Eukaryote – complex cell with a nucleus Multicellular (except yeast)Can reproduce asexually with spores or sexuallyHeterotrophs (consumers) – they eat!Important decomposersExamples: Mushrooms, mold, lichens
14 I. Kingdom Plantae Eukaryote – complex cell with a nucleus MulticellularAutotrophs (producers) – they carry out photosynthesisReproduce sexually with pollen or asexuallyCell wall made of cellulose
15 J. Kingdom Animalia Hey! That’s You! Eukaryote – complex cell with a nucleusMulticellularHeterotrophs (consumers)Reproduce sexuallyExamples: insects, fish, humans