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Physical and Mental Health

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1 Physical and Mental Health
of Middle Years Students 9:00am

2 Health: “Is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” (World Health Organisation,1948). 9:01am

3 Psychological condition Emotional condition Environmental factors
Factors of health Physical condition Social condition Psychological condition Emotional condition Environmental factors Cultural factors Creativity and productivity 9:02am

4 We define health as the overall well-being of a person in relation to physical, social, psychological, emotional, environmental and cultural factors in conjunction with interpersonal relations. 9:03am

5 Mental/health: Physical health: What is mental and physical health?
Cognitive or emotional well-being i.e. how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. Physical health: Overall well-being of the bodies internal and external properties e.g. Organs, metabolic function, fitness etc. 9:04am

6 Brainstorm: Using the Venn Diagram
Physical Health Relationship Between Mental Health 9:05am

7 Group 1: Mental Health (with Natalie)
Literature review: Group 1: Mental Health (with Natalie) Group 2: Physical Health (with Cara) Group 3: Mental and Physical Health (with Ange) 9:10am

8 Physical health of Adolescents
Focus: Physical Activity, Nutrition and Behaviour

9 What are the issues that Middle Years students face in regards to physical health?
External Internal Fitness/ Physical Activity Body Development Nutrition Organs, muscles, nerves system and skeletal.

‘Dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Australian secondary students in 2005’. This study aimed to find current information on secondary students’ behaviours in relation to their usual daily consumption, engagement in physical activity in a week, hours spent using electronic devices and doing homework. 9:21am- Cara Sedentary behaviour: sitting, lying down and sleeping because they don't require any muscle recruitment.

11 Who: 18 486 secondary students aged 12-18
When: 2005 Where: Australian schools (excluding Western Australia)

12 What was found: 20% of students met the daily intake requirement of vegetables. 39% of students met the daily consumption requirement for fruit. 46% of students having fast food at least twice a week. 51% of students having snack food at least four times a week. 14% of students engage in recommended levels of physical activity.

13 Fruit (serves) Vegetables (serves)
Recommended daily intake of fruit and vegetables for children and adolescents:  Age of child (years)  Fruit (serves)  Vegetables (serves) 4-7  1-2 2-4  8-11   3-5  12-18  3-4  4-9 Source: The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating One serve of fruit is 150 grams, one serve of vegetables is 75 grams

14 Required physical activity time
Recommended levels of physical activity for students in Queensland: Physical Activity Action Program “Smart Moves” Aim: improve the health and physical activity levels of young people. School Required physical activity time Primary 30 minutes minimum per day (moderate intensity) Lower Secondary (Middle School) 2 hours minimum per week (moderate intensity) Special As close as possible to the allocations of primary and secondary Moderate intensity: brisk walking, gardening, dancing etc.

‘Change in Physical Education Motivation and Physical Activity Behavior during Middle School’ The purpose of this study was to find links between motivation and physical activity behaviour in the Middle Years of schooling. 9:21am- Cara

16 When: 3 year study prior to 2008
Who: When: 3 year study prior to 2008 Where: 7 elementary schools and 5 middle schools in mid-west USA. Year Level Number of students 1st Year of Study 6 & 7 463 2nd Year of Study 7 & 8 356

17 What was found: A relationship between students’ motivation and behaviour in physical activity. For students to feel self-determined (motivated) they must feel a sense of competence, autonomy and relatedness. A student who is self-determined will achieve more positive cognitive and behavioural consequences. A student who is self-determined is more likely to engage in physical activity. Competence- refers to Autonomy-refers to Relatedness- refers to

18 What was found continued:
9:41am- Ange This model represents the relationships among motivation variables and physical activity behaviour

19 What is the significance of middle years students’ physical health to teachers?
- Responsibilities? - Requirements? QCT Standards (health) Curriculum (health) Students’ physical development

20 Research questions for topic continued...
Physical Health: 8. Is there a participation drop-off in physical activity of adolescents? 9. Do families of the student have an influence on their physical health? 10. Do peers of the student have an influence on their physical health? 11. Does the media have an influence on a students’ physical health? 12. Does demographics have an impact on the physical health of a student? 9:45am- Cara

21 Mental Health of Adolescents
Natalie McMahon

22 Most teens with eating disorders don't get appropriate help:
They have suicidal tendencies, social impairments and at least one other psychiatric illness, a study says. Children, Adolescents Most Vulnerable to Mental Illness Majority of US Adolescents With Severe Mental Disorders Have Never Received Treatment for Their Conditions Being a teenager is hard. You're under stress to be liked, do well in school, get along with your family and make big decisions. You can't avoid most of these pressures, and worrying about them is normal. But feeling very sad, hopeless or worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem.

23 LITERATURE REVIEW Title: Children’s Mental Health and School Success Journal: The Journal of School Nursing Year of publication: 2005 Authors: Janiece DeSocio, RN, PhD, PMHNP; and Janis Hootman, RN, PhD, NCSN

24 Children’s mental health and school success (2004)
Important facts from the journal article: The proportion of youth with mental health problems has continued to increase, with an estimated 21% of America’s children, ages 9–17, affected by a mental health or an addictive disorder. Disruptive behavior disorders affect more than 10% of children and include Attention Deficit Disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder(USDHHS, 1999). It is not unusual for oppositional and disruptive behaviors to first appear during the preschool years and to continue through school age and adolescence. Frequent school absences for vague and nonspecific physical health problems may be related to underlying mental health needs and family problems.

25 Important facts continued...
Depressed children and adolescents attract less notice from teachers and school officials than do their disruptive classmates, but their academic performance can be significantly compromised by symptoms of poor concentration, distractibility, insomnia and daytime sleepiness, irritability, and low self-esteem (Goldman, 2003). Rushton, Forcier, and Schectman (2002) reported that almost 30% of adolescents endorsed symptoms of depression, and more than 9% identified symptoms in the moderate to severe range. Experiences that adults consider normative events of childhood, such as changing schools, may also contribute to heightened stress that predisposes children to the emergence of mental health problems. The risk for suicide increases for youth with depression, especially when depression coexists with substance abuse (Gould et al., 2003). A history of past suicidal behaviors (ideations, threats, and suicide attempts) is associated with a high risk for completed suicide.

26 Difficulties in social integration and problems adjusting to school are among the early signs of emerging psychotic disorders in children and adolescents. Schaeffer and Ross (2002) reported similar findings in studying children with early onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. The premorbid symptoms displayed by these children included impairments in attention and behavior, which affected their school functioning. Furthermore, the relationship between mental health problems and school performance is bidirectional. Not only are children with mental health problems at risk for poor school adjustment, but children who begin school with learning difficulties are at greater risk for developing mental health problems.

27 What does this mean to us as Middle Years teachers?
Have an understanding of symptoms of mental health issues that are common among adolescents. Especially: depression, anxiety, suicide thoughts Question: Do you think it is important to have an understanding of as many mental problems that are common amongst middle years students, or do you think you should leave learning about these issues until there is a child in your class that has a mental issue? Why? - It could be too late. It is important to know some signs of mental issues. Obviously you can’t know every condition, it’s symptoms and how it is treated, but having a basic understanding can really help your students. Make sure you are approachable – A lot of the time adolescents just need somebody to talk to. We all know ourselves how much better a problem seems if you have someone to talk to and confide it rather than just keep the problems bottled up inside. It will only get worse. If you students know you are approachable, or other students in the school they are more likely to be able to talk about their problems.

28 Organise talks about mental health problems
Organise talks about mental health problems. Have resources availabe in the school such as Mental Matters and Reach Out. Let students know they are not alone, there is help out there. As Middle Years teachers we need to know who students can go to for help. Can anybody share their thoughts about this? Classroom teacher websites Other teachers brochures Guidance officer parents Support teachers siblings Mental health workers youth workers

29 LITERATURE REVIEW Title: Understanding Adolescents Journal Article: Australia’s young people: their health and wellbeing. Year of publication: 2004 Authors: Moon, L., Meyer, P., Grau, J.

30 Understanding Adolescents (2004)
-Young people’s health status is also strongly influenced by family, social and cultural factors as well as environmental hazards to which they may be exposed e.g. socio-economic status cultural background family breakdown physical/sexual abuse and neglect homelessness -The leading causes of death and illness in the age group are: accidents and injury mental health problems behavioural problems

31 Mental health and behavioural disorders account for more than half the disease burden among adolescents Up to 20% of adolescents suffer from a mental disorder at any given time On average some 400 young people kill themselves each year The death rates of young males from accidents, injuries and suicide increases markedly with increasing geographical remoteness There is an increased risk of suicidal behaviour among young people who identify as gay, lesbian or bisexual Rates of depressive disorders are 3 times higher for young females than for males Male suicide rate is 4 times higher than female rate

32 What does that mean to us as Middle Years teachers?
What can influence the mental health of adolescents? What are the warning signs? How can we help? Can mental health have an affect on academic success? What initiatives related to suicide can you as a teacher take? Is there anything you can do to help prevent this behaviour? DISCUSSION TIME

33 Possible research questions:
How do families impact mental health of adolescents? How do friendship groups impact mental health of adolescents? Does divorce impact mental health of adolescents? How does bullying impact mental health of adolescents? Does mental health of adolescents impact upon academic success? Why are depression rates higher in females than in males? Why are children who begin school with learning difficulties at greater risk for developing mental health problems? Does the media affect mental health of adolescents? Does childhood life have an affect on adolescent years?

34 The relationship between Physical Activity and mental Health
Focus: Physical Activity and self esteem

35 Effects of self esteem... Self esteem Confidence Acceptance
Identity Development

36 Effects of physical activity...
Friendships Sense of belonging Self esteem Achievement Confidence Support Health benefits Mental clarity Physical health Physical Activity Confidence Self esteem

37 What other ways can physical activity impact upon self esteem
What other ways can physical activity impact upon self esteem? Positive and negative...

38 How can we encourage the positive impacts of physical activity on self esteem?

39 Are the impacts of physical activity on self esteem long term or short term?

40 The Cochrane Collaboration
A study completed to determine if exercise alone or exercise as part of a comprehensive intervention can improve self-esteem among children and young people. Ekeland. E., et al. (2009). Exercise to improve self-esteem in children and young people. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from

41 Why? There is strong evidence for benefits of exercise on physical health. Minimal evidence on the effects of exercise on mental health. Ekeland. E., et al. (2009)

42 How? 1821 children and young people, 3-20 years,
Randomised selection across Norway, Participants came from all walks of life, Small trials, Bias was assessed, Ekeland. E., et al. (2009)

43 How? Some students were involved in gross motor, energetic activity (running, swimming, ball games) Others were involved in “ordinary” physical activity (HPE classes, walking to school, play time activities) Control group 4 weeks in total (short term) All measurements of children’s self-esteem. Ekeland. E., et al. (2009)

44 Results... Exercise does improve self-esteem,
Primarily in the short term, Definitely for children and young people at risk. Ekeland. E., et al. (2009)

45 The relationship between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and psychological wellbeing among adolescents Within the journal of Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology Cook, G., et al. (2007). The relationship between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and psychological wellbeing among adolescents. Journal of Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 42, 851 – 856. Retrieved March 15, 2011 from SpringerLink database.

46 Why? Previous studies examining this relationship are limited due to lack of control of variables. Analysed the relationship between self reported physical activity level, sedentary behaviour and psychological wellbeing. Controlled sociodemographic, health and developmental factors. Cook, G., et al. (2007)

47 How? School-based survey in ten British towns,
2 623 students aged 13 – 16, Self reported physical activity, patterns of sedentary behaviour, Completion of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Adjustments made for age and town. Strengths and difficulties questionnaire  Behavioural screening questionnaire – includes 25 items on psychological attributes, an impact question (whether the student things they have a problem of any description, and follow up questions. Additional adjustments were also made, for things such as social class, number of parents, school results, BMI, ethnicity, but they had little effect on the findings. Cook, G., et al. (2007)

48 Reported level of physical activity...
Characteristic: Boys % Boys Girls % Girls Total % Total Child’s rating of time active: Little physical activity 164 12.4% 303 24.9% 467 18.4% Once/twice a week 394 29.9% 539 44.4% 933 36.8% 4 – 6 times a week 492 37.3% 277 22.8% 769 30.3% 7 or more times a week 269 20.4% 96 7.9% 365 14.4% 1319 100% 1215 2534 Cook, G., et al. (2007)

49 Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire...
Interpreting the graphs: 0-13: Close to average, unlikely to be clinically significant 14-16: Slightly raised may reflect clinically significant problems 17-40: High substantial risk of clinically significant problems Cook, G., et al. (2007)

50 Results... 6.3% of girls and 5.4% of boys had abnormally high SDQ scores. Reports of low sedentary behaviour were significantly related to reports of high levels of physical activity and vice versa. For both boys and girls, a SDQ score of >15 was significantly related to low physical activity levels. Cook, G., et al. (2007)

51 Results... Strong and graded associations were found between lower levels of physical activity and lower psychological wellbeing. Adjustments were made for a wide range of variables Strengths: adolescent specific, several measures of physical activity, adjustments made for variables. Limitations: reliance on self-reports. Modest response rate, but this is unlikely to have interfered with the observed associations. Limitations: However the report also indicates that the consistency between the reports from the parents and the child, along with the relationship established between the child’s pa level and their psychological wellbeing indicates that the results are valid. Cook, G., et al. (2007)

52 What does this mean for teachers?
Is physical activity the only impact on self esteem? How can we impact on our students’ levels of physical activity? How can we encourage physical activity to improve self esteem? Cook, G., et al. (2007)

53 References World Health Organisation. WHO definition of health (1948). Retrieved March 19, 2011, from Australian Government: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Age consent laws. (2010). Go for 2 & 5. Smart Moves. moves-web.pdf Cook, G., et al. (2007). The relationship between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and psychological wellbeing among adolescents. Journal of Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 42, 851 – 856. Retrieved March 15, 2011 from SpringerLink database. Ekeland. E., et al. (2009). Exercise to improve self-esteem in children and young people. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from 9:48am

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