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The Byzantine Empire, Russia, and Eastern Europe

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1 The Byzantine Empire, Russia, and Eastern Europe
Chapter 9 Page 280

2 Section 1 The Byzantine Empire
A: Constantinople sits at crossroads Mediterranean Sea- Black Sea Europe and Asia Named Constantinople after Emperor Constantine Lasted 1000 years longer then western part of Roman Empire City had high walls, easy to defend Grew rich through trade

3 B. Byzantium under Justinian
Emperor Justinian Tried to bring back Rome to its former greatness Conquered most of original Roman territory Would not keep long Rebuilt Constantinople- Hagia Sophia- famous Christian temple- domed roof Justinian’s code- Body of Civil Law

4 Justinian had absolute power- autocrat
Wife Theodora was top advisor and pursued own policies Army and navy best in world at the time Greek Fire ’s constant pressure from invaders would shrink and weaken empire, but would continue to exist

5 C. Byzantine Christianity
Byzantine rejected papal authority Monarchs appointed their own patriarchs- or top religious officials Eventually, Eastern Orthodox would differ from western Christianity Great Schism caused of the use of icons-

6 D. Collapse Seljuk Turks push Byzantine out of Asia Minor
Surrounded the city several times, but could not take 4th Crusade- Crusaders actually sack the city Take many of its riches back to Europe City would never be the same 1453- Ottoman Turks capture and pillage the city Renamed it Istanbul- Muslim city now

7 Section 2 Rise of Russia A. Geography of Russia
3 Regions Northern forces- supplied natural resources Southern farmland- great for growing grains- Ukraine region Steppe- open treeless grassland, also in south but further east Ural Mountains separate Europe from Asia Did not hinder migration Many rivers for transportation

8 B. Kiev Kiev was first cultural center of what would become Russia
Russian are ancestors of Slavs who migrated from Poland and Belarus Vikings would also come south Rurik, a Viking prince, belonged to Rus tribe Called their land Russia

9 C. Byzantines gain influence
Byzantines sent Christian missionaries to convert the Russians Translated Bible into Cyrillic- slavic alphabet Russians converted in large numbers and Byzantines and Russians grew close politically

10 D. Mongol Rule 1200’s- Genghis Khan led Golden Horde across Asia and Eastern Europe Batu, his grandson, would conquer Kiev and Russia As long as they paid tribute, Mongol conquered areas could rule themselves Let the Russians remain Christian However, because of Mongols, Russia would remain isolated from Europe

11 E. Moscow Princes of Moscow slowly take power
Have tributes brought to Moscow where Mongols would collect When Mongol power declined, Moscow filled the void Ivan the Great helped make Moscow capital and expanded Russian lands Called himself tsar-

12 1547, Ivan the Great first official Russian Tsar
However, his Grandson, Ivan the terrible, would turn Tsar into absolute ruler Became unstable toward the end of his life Had political dissenters and enemies killed Oprichniki- agents of terror to enforce Tsars will

13 Section 3 Shaping Eastern Europe
A. Geography Shapes Eastern Europe Eastern Europe lies on Balkan Peninsula and between Germany and Russia Main Rivers are Vistula and Danube that flow to Baltic Sea or Black Sea Much diversity because of location

14 B. Migrations Contribute to Diversity
Early middle ages, Slavs spread from present day Belarus West Slavs Moved to Poland, Czeck, and Slovak Republic South Slavs moved to Balkands

15 Area became a crossroads of Christian and Muslim traditions
Jews who were discriminated in other parts of Europe, found refuge in Poland and other Eastern Europe countries Cracow

16 C. 3 Early Kingdoms Poland
Missionaries arrived in 900- converted to Christian Queen Jadwiga and Duke Wladyslaw united Poland and Lithuania Was a powerful eastern Europe kingdom Diet- However, location left few natural boarders, invaders and surrounding countries gobbled up Poland

17 Magyars in Hungary Raided Europe but settled in Hungary
Controlled the surrounding area Golden Bull of 1222- However, Mongols probably killed half of population Eventually taken over by Ottoman turks

18 Balkan Kingdom South Slavs were ancestors of the Serbs
Serbs became Christian Set up a Serb Kingdom in Balkan Peninsula Adopted many of the Roman laws under Dusan Would fall apart after invaded by Turks

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