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The Struggle for Equality. Path to Abolishing Slavery The Constitutional Convention would have failed without a compromise on slavery. Counted slaves.

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Presentation on theme: "The Struggle for Equality. Path to Abolishing Slavery The Constitutional Convention would have failed without a compromise on slavery. Counted slaves."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Struggle for Equality

2 Path to Abolishing Slavery The Constitutional Convention would have failed without a compromise on slavery. Counted slaves as 3/5ths of person Returned runaway slaves to their owners

3 In the Constitution What terms are used to describe African Americans?

4 The Framers Use terms like, “All other persons and such people”

5 What was the Missouri Compromise of 1820

6 Divided new lands into “slave” territories and “free” territories.

7 Who was Dred Scott?

8 Dred Scott Case 1857 A Slave from South Traveled and lived in North –Slavery was illegal in this territory After coming back to Missouri, Scott argued he should be free Court ruled that according to the Constitution – Slaves were property

9 13 th Amendment 1865

10 African Americans Even though the Constitution banned slavery, the struggle for citizenship and the right to vote had only just begun.

11 14 th Amendment - 1868 Ensured Citizenship for Citizens Takes power away from states to grant citizenship Sometimes called the 2 nd Bill of Rights

12 Did the 14 th Amendment ensure equal treatment of African Americans?

13 NO! Many states created new ways to segregate.

14 What is suffrage?

15 The Right to VOTE

16 The Path to Suffrage For African Americans For Women For Young Adults

17 15 th Amendment 1870 States may not deny the vote to any person on the basis of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude” What did they forget????????

18 WOMEN!!!

19 24 th Amendment 1964 Southern states were using a poll tax to prevent African Americans from voting. This amendment made poll taxes illegal

20 Women’s Suffrage Movement

21 When the Constitution was written, only white men had the right to vote. Women also did not have many other rights such as the right to own property or to be educated for certain jobs.

22 As time passed, many people came to feel that this was unfair and that women should have the same rights as men in our country. Women’s suffrage (right to vote) became an organized movement in 1848 at a convention in New York.

23 Women’s Suffrage Parade in New York City

24 Susan B. Anthony born: 2/15/1820 From: Adams,MA 1871 Arrested for voting in a presidential election Her speech, “We, the people, not we, the white male citizens, nor yet we, the male citizens……..”

25 Elizabeth Cady Stanton In 1851 Stanton met Susan B. Anthony and for the next fifty years they worked together. Stanton wrote and gave speeches Anthony organized and campaigned to achieve these goals.

26 Lucretia Mott Lucretia Mott helped to organize and call together the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York in July of 1848.

27 Seneca Falls Convention “We hold these truths to be self evident…..that all men AND WOMEN are created equal” 1848

28 Sojourner Truth Truth became a speaker on women's rights issues after attending a Women's Rights Convention in 1850.

29 19 th Amendment 1920 Finally after years of hard work, women earned the right to vote

30 26 th Amendment 1971 Lowered voting age from 21 to 18 If you are old enough to die for your country – you should be able to vote

31 14 th Amendment’s principle of EQUAL PROTECTION Equal Protection –Means that people must be treated fairly – –it does not mean that everyone must be treated in exactly the same way.

32 Can you give an example of Equal Protection?

33 The banks right to not have to give a loan to everyone who applies for one. BUT Can’t base it on race, gender, or age.

34 Segregation Separation of blacks and whites in public places Laws of segregation were passed after 14 th amendment granted citizenship Did segregation violate the principle of equal protection under the law?

35 Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 Homer Plessy Refused to leave a “whites only” railroad car Court said that separate but equal standards did not violate the 14 th amendment

36 Thurgood Marshall 1950’s Can they really be equal and separate? NAACP (National Advancement of Colored People) First African American on Supreme Court

37 Brown v. Board of Education 1954 Linda Brown –7 blocks from white school –21 blocks from African American school Supreme Court Case Separate facilities are inherently unequal – students made to feel inferior Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson of 1896

38 Brown v. Board of Education

39 Affirmative Action Steps to counteract the effects of past racial discrimination and discrimination against women. –Colleges, businesses.

40 University of California v. Bakke 1973 Reverse Discrimination White applicant rejected Other racial and ethnic groups were admitted with lower GPAs, test scores and interview ratings. Stated race could be a factor when achieving a more diverse student body

41 Marchers protesting the Court's decision in Bakke. (AP/Wide World Photos)

42 Grutter v. Bollinger 2003 White female denied admission (same grounds as Bakke) Race or ethnicity is a legal and necessary tool for determining college admissions

43 Phillips Case Ida Phillips –Denied employment because of gender –“Do You Have Young Children?” Court ruled that company could not have “one hiring policy for women and another for men”

44 Citizens and the Constitution 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th came about as a result of the Civil War The other changes were made through peaceful efforts of active CITIZENS

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