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The Crusades AD 1095-1290s.

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Presentation on theme: "The Crusades AD 1095-1290s."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Crusades AD s


3 Periods of Byzantine Empire

4 Islamic expansion

5 CRUSADES Definition: The Two Sides: Crusades: Holy War
Christians from Europe Muslim Turks from Middle East

6 The First Crusade Background: Causes:
Byzantine Emperor asked Pope for help Byzantine empire was besieged by Muslim armies Byzantine empire lost half its land to Muslim armies by 1071 Holy Land closed to Christian pilgrims(person who goes on a religious journey) by Islamic empire Free eastern Christians from Islamic Empire Keep Europe Christian

7 The Crusades The Crusades were an attempt by the European Church to “reclaim the Holy Land” Jerusalem had been conquered by Arabs around 640 AD 1095 Pope Urban calls for first Crusade

8 The First Crusade Two Groups went to fight the 1st Crusade:
People’s Crusade: 1096 Made up of untrained and illiterate mostly peasants with some knights. Lacked military discipline and knowledge and were massacred in Asia Minor by the Turks. Main Crusader Armies: Left Europe in Aug 1096. Gathered in Constantinople in Nov. 30-35,000 crusaders Leaders: Count Raymond of Toulouse, S France; Godfrey of Bouillon and his brother Baldwin, commanded French and Germans from Rhineland; Robert, William the Conqueror's eldest son, Normandy; Bohemond, a son of Robert Guiscard, and his nephew Tancred, Italy and Sicily

9 Second Crusade ( ) After victory many Christians went back home The Turks eventually took back much of the territory King of France and Emperor of Germany sent troops to stop the Turks

10 Second Crusade ( ) Saladin leads the Muslim Turks to victory, defeating the Christians He was considered a very wise ruler. He was known for his sometimes kind treatment of fallen enemies. Many Christians saw him as a model of knightly chivalry.

11 Third Crusade (1189-1192) Led by King Richard I
Won back many cities/territories from Saladin Failed to capture Jerusalem  leads to the Fourth Crusade

12 Crusades Continue Through 1200’s
Several more crusades attempted with no victories for the Christians Children’s crusade, - 30,000 soldiers - many of them under 12 years old – Never made it to the Holy Land Crusades end around 1285

13 Results of the Crusades
I.F. Turks Traveled they would Trade I = Improvements – Ships, Maps, Explorers F = Feudalism declines because Feudal lords die or spend too much money on military. T = Turks still rule the Holy Land T = Travel – Europeans want to travel more T = Trade – Europeans want product from the East such as sugar, cotton, silk, spices, etc.

14 Aftermath Victory in 1st Crusade was short lived.
Within 50 years, Muslim armies re-conquered Jerusalem The 1st Crusade would be the only victory for the European Christian armies. Succeeding crusades failed to win any territory; including a “Children’s Crusade”

15 The Crusades Conclusion
At Least 8 Crusades Effects of Crusades: Increased dislike among Jews, Christians and Muslims Pope and lords lost power Kings gained Power Trade with Asia and Middle East reborn Interest in exploration

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