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Rhetorical Devices: Ethos, Pathos, Logos
What is Rhetoric? Rhetoric (n) - the art of speaking or writing effectively and/or persuasively. –Term coined by the philosopher Aristotle. According to him, rhetoric is "the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion." –He described three main forms (rhetorical proofs) of rhetoric: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos. In order to be a more effective writer, you must understand how to use rhetoric and rhetorical devices to your advantage.
Ethos (Credibility) Ethos: the source's credibility, the speakers/author's authority, an appeal to character, ethical appeal We tend to believe people whom we respect. This respect may be automatic or it may be earned. One of the central problems of argumentation is to project an impression to the reader that you are someone worth listening to, in other words making yourself as author into an authority on the subject of the paper, as well as someone who is likable and worthy of respect.
Ethos Example Automatic Authority www.youtube.com/watch?v=jlXRengzZoc www.youtube.com/watch?v=jlXRengzZoc Why does this commercial make me want to go out and buy something with a swoosh on it? Nike itself isn’t really even mentioned…why is this persuasive enough to make me want to spend my money?
Ethos: How do I earn authority? There are four dimensions to ethos: –Similarity: Does your audience identify with you? –Trustworthiness: Does you audience have reason to trust you? –Authority: Do you have authority on your topic? How do you prove it to your audience? –Reputation: How much expertise does your audience think you have on your topic?
Logos (Logical) Logos: the logic used to support a claim (induction and deduction); facts and statistics used to help support the argument. – Persuading by the use of reasoning. –Statistics, facts, examples, reasons –Logos Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pqy_3u2AoV 0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pqy_3u2AoV 0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pqy_3u2AoV 0
Pathos Pathos: persuading by appealing to the reader's emotions. Emotional appeals are one of the most powerful tools of persuasion. Specific word and/or image choice, personal stories
Pathos Examples http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SfAxUpe VhCg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SfAxUpe VhCg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SfAxUpe VhCg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9gspElv1 yvc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9gspElv1 yvc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9gspElv1 yvc
The Most Effective Argument The most effective arguments utilize all three of these. As we are looking at Rationalist literature, we will examine these three and how they are used. In January, you will apply them to your research paper.
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