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................................................. IT Research Challenges in Digital Preservation Andreas Rauber Department of Software Technology and Interactive.

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Presentation on theme: "................................................. IT Research Challenges in Digital Preservation Andreas Rauber Department of Software Technology and Interactive."— Presentation transcript:

1 ................................................. IT Research Challenges in Digital Preservation Andreas Rauber Department of Software Technology and Interactive Systems Vienna University of Technology http://www.ifs.tuwien.ac.at/~andi

2 ................................................. Overview  Why do we need Digital Preservation?  Digital Preservation Projects in Europe  IT-oriented Challenges in Digital Preservation  Some Digital Preservation Research at TUWIEN  Conclusions

3 ................................................. Why do we need Digital Preservation?

4 ................................................. Why do we need Digital Preservation?

5 ................................................. Why do we need Digital Preservation?  Digital Objects require specific environment to be accessible : -Files need specific programs -Programs need specific operating systems (-versions) -Operating systems need specific hardware components  SW/HW environment is not stable: -Files cannot be opened anymore -Embedded objects are no longer accessible/linked -Programs won‘t run -Information in digital form is lost (usually total loss, no degradation)  Digital Preservation aims at maintaining digital objects authentically usable and accessible for long time periods.

6 ................................................. Strategies for Digital Preservation Strategies (grouped according to Companion Document to UNESCO Charter http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001300/130071e.pdf) http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001300/130071e.pdf  Investment strategies: -Standardization, Data extraction, Encapsulation, Format limitations  Short-term approaches: -Museum, Backwards-compatibility, Version-migration, Reengineering  Medium- / long-term approaches: -Migration, Viewer, Emulation  Alternative approaches: -Non-digital Approaches, Data-Archeology  No single optimal solution for all objects

7 ................................................. Migration  Transformation into different format, continuous or on-demand (Viewer) +Wide-spread adoption +Possibility to compare to un-migrated object +Immediately accessible -Unintended changes, specifically over sequence of migrations -Cannot be used for all objects -Requires continuous action to migrate

8 ................................................. Emulation  Emulation of hardware or software (operating system, applications) +Concept of emulation widely used +Numerous emulators are available +Potentially complete preservation of functionality +Object is rendered identically -Object is rendered identically -Requires detailed documentation of system -Requires knowledge on how to operate current systems in the future -Complex technology -Emulators must be emulated or migrated themselves -Emulators potentially erroneous/incomplete

9 ................................................. Digital Preservation  Affects all domains -Cultural heritage -eGovernment -Primary data: Sensor data, experiment data -Industry: production processes, workflows, monitoring -Medical, Insurance/Banking, -Society: photos, communications  Test: -Trying to repeat / verify “old” experiments -Problems with Data Management: original test data, parameters, preprocessing,… Code: compilability, change of libraries/functionality interpretability of results, know-how

10 ................................................. Digital Preservation  Is a complex task  Requires a concise understanding of the objects, their intellectual characteristics, the way they were created and used and how they will most likely be used in the future  Requires a continuous commitment to preserve objects to avoid the „digital dark ages“  Requires a solid, trusted infrastructure and workflows to ensure digital objects are not lost  Is essential to maintain electronic publications, research data, … accessible  Will become more complex as digital objects become more complex

11 ................................................. Overview  Why do we need Digital Preservation?  Digital Preservation Projects in Europe  IT-oriented Challenges in Digital Preservation  Some Digital Preservation Research at TUWIEN

12 ................................................. Overview  Digital Preservation Projects in Europe large number, small selection provided below -DPE: Digital Preservation Europe, EU, FP6 -Caspar: Cultural, Artistic and Scientific Knowledge for Preservation, Access and Retrieval -Planets: Preservation and Long-term Access Networked Services: -Shaman: Sustaining Heritage Access through Multivalent Archiving -LIWA: Living Web Archives -Keep-it: Kultur, eCrystals, EdShare (and NECTAR) - Preserve It  IT-oriented Challenges in Digital Preservation  Some Digital Preservation Research at TUWIEN  Conclusions

13 ................................................. DPE FP6 Coordinating Action http://www.digitalpreservationeurope.eu http://www.digitalpreservationeurope.eu

14 ................................................. Vision What is DPE? FP6 Coordinating Action, Digitalpreservationeurope (DPE) intends to create a coherent platform for proactive cooperation, collaboration, exchange and dissemination of research results and experience in the preservation of digital objects Digital Preservation: ensuring long-term accessibility of digital objects Mitigating the risk of a “digital dark age” http://www.digitalpreservationeurope.eu

15 ................................................. Objectives Two macro objectives: 1.to foster collaboration and synergies among on-going projects and existing initiatives across the ERA [repositories and audit and certification tools] 2.to raise up awareness on digital preservation challenges among different user communities [different level of awareness on the subject and its strategic significance]

16 ................................................. Activities DPE Activities Range of activities to foster research and take-up in digital preservation Research Roadmap Digital Preservation Challenge Researcher and Practitioner Exchange DPE Videos

17 ................................................. Research Roadmap Preservation Research Roadmap The Roadmap aims at contributing to the planning of our future R&D in Digital Preservation by means of different actions:  Analysing the state of the art in Digital Preservation research and already existing research agendas on a global level;  Researching the needs and demands from the point of view of the Digital Preservation user communities and their leading experts;  Researching the needs and demands of future markets for technology and service providers

18 ................................................. Research Roadmap DPE Recommended Research  Restauration  Conservation  Collection and repository management  Preservation as risk management  Preserving the interpretability and functionality of digital objects  Collection cohesion and interoperability  Automation in preservation  Preserving the context  Storage technologies

19 ................................................. DP Challenge DPE Challenge Promotion of innovation in DP Targeted at students Main Goal: Provide access to and make digital objects useable Open to participants world-wide Submission deadline: May 30 2008 http://www.digitalpreservationeurope.eu/challenge Different tasks, eg. Assessment of Submission by an International Panel of Experts in the field Access Data in a Legacy Client-Server System Proprietary File Format Preservation of Multimedia Art

20 ................................................. DPE Videos Raising Awareness of DP Issues  Experts & Practitioners: Briefing Papers, Seminars  General Public: little awareness, everybody afected  DPE Videos: series of short cartoons highlighting DP issues aimed at non-experts trying to communicate challenges in simple style Videos available on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/wepreserve http://www.youtube.com/user/wepreserve

21 ................................................. Overview  Digital Preservation Projects in Europe large number, small selection provided below -DPE: Digital Preservation Europe, EU, FP6 -Caspar: Cultural, Artistic and Scientific Knowledge for Preservation, Access and Retrieval -Planets: Preservation and Long-term Access Networked Services: -Shaman: Sustaining Heritage Access through Multivalent Archiving -LIWA: Living Web Archives -Keep-it: Kultur, eCrystals, EdShare (and NECTAR) - Preserve It  IT-oriented Challenges in Digital Preservation  Some Digital Preservation Research at TUWIEN  Conclusions

22 ................................................. CASPAR http://www.casparpreserves.eu http://www.casparpreserves.eu

23 ................................................. CASPAR  How can digital data still be used and understood in the future when systems, software, and everyday knowledge continues to change? This is the CASPAR challenge.  The CASPAR project is mainly based on the OAIS standard ISO:14721:2003  Its Architecture is defined for -Managing key concepts of the OAIS reference model -Supporting main functionality identified in the OAIS functional model  CASPAR aims to define and implement interfaces and functionally independent components

24 .................................................  Users may be unable to understand or use the data e.g. the semantics, format, processes or algorithms involved -How to guarantee digital information may be accessed and understood in the future? -How to guarantee retrieval of Archival Information? -How to guarantee intelligibility of digital information within heterogeneous Designated Communities?  Non-maintainability of essential hardware, software or support environment may make the information inaccessible -How to guarantee preservation actors are informed about change events? -How to guarantee appropriate actions are undertaken to preserve Archival Information against change events? Preservation Issue 1

25 ................................................. Preservation Issue 3  The chain of evidence may be lost and there may be lack of certainty of provenance or authenticity -How to guarantee an adequate integrity and identity for any Archival Information?  Access and use restrictions may make it difficult to reuse data, or alternatively may not be respected in future -How to guarantee an adequate security access with the proper rights to any resource and functionality within an Archive?  The current custodian of the data, whether an organisation or project, may cease to exist at some point in the future -How to guarantee a proper information package management within and Archive? -How to guarantee long-time preservation maintenance of any information package?

26 ................................................. Overview  Digital Preservation Projects in Europe large number, small selection provided below -DPE: Digital Preservation Europe, EU, FP6 -Caspar: Cultural, Artistic and Scientific Knowledge for Preservation, Access and Retrieval -Planets: Preservation and Long-term Access Networked Services: -Shaman: Sustaining Heritage Access through Multivalent Archiving -LIWA: Living Web Archives -Keep-it: Kultur, eCrystals, EdShare (and NECTAR) - Preserve It  IT-oriented Challenges in Digital Preservation  Some Digital Preservation Research at TUWIEN  Conclusions

27 ................................................. Planets http://www.planets-project.eu http://www.planets-project.eu

28 ................................................. The Planets project  4-year research and technology development project co-funded by the European Union  Addresses core digital preservation challenges  Started June 2006 with €15m budget  Coordinated by the British Library  16 partners -national libraries and archives -leading technology companies -research universities  Builds on strong digital archiving and preservation programmes

29 ................................................. Planets partners  The British Library  National Library, Netherlands  Austrian National Library  State and University Library, Denmark  Royal Library, Denmark  National Archives, UK  Swiss Federal Archives  National Archives, Netherlands

30 ................................................. Planets partners  Tessella Plc  IBM Netherlands  Microsoft Research  Austrian Research Centers GmbH  Hatii at University of Glasgow  University of Freiburg  Vienna University of Technology  University of Cologne

31 ................................................. The Planets team All Staff Meeting, February 2007

32 ................................................. Planets Architecture Preservation Planning Services Characterisation Services Preservation Action Services Test Bed: evaluation and validation services Interoperability Framework Digital Content Organisational Context External Context Technical Environment

33 ................................................. Preservation Action  Transform content -Pluggable infrastructure for third-party migration tools  Transform environment -Dioscuri: Modular emulation of the full hardware/software environment -Universal Virtual Computer (UVC): provides a layered durable approach to emulation  Preservation Action Tools registry  XML language for describing preservation action tools

34 ................................................. Preservation Characterisation  Characterisation framework -Unifies tools for identifying file formats and extracting object properties  Characterisation registry -Based on the file format registry PRONOM  eXtensible Characterisation Languages (XCL) -Family of XML languages for characterising digital objects  Comparator verifies effects of preservation actions

35 ................................................. Infrastructure and Testbed  Interoperability Framework provides common basis -JBoss Application Server -Logging, Security Services -Registry services -User management and Single-Sign-On  Planets Testbed -Controlled environment for the execution of experiments -Accumulated experience base collected in registry

36 ................................................. Preservation planning  Collection profiling services  Technology watch services  Risk assessment of digital objects  Preservation planning methodology  Tool support: Plato, the Planning Tool

37 ................................................. Preservation planning  Evaluating preservation strategies  Variety of solutions and tools exist  Each strategy has unique strengths and weaknesses  Requirements vary across settings  Decision on which solution to adopt is complex  Documentation and accountability is essential  Preservation planning assists in decision making  Evaluation of strategies on representative sample content according to specific requirements

38 ................................................. Overview  Digital Preservation Projects in Europe large number, small selection provided below -DPE: Digital Preservation Europe, EU, FP6 -Caspar: Cultural, Artistic and Scientific Knowledge for Preservation, Access and Retrieval -Planets: Preservation and Long-term Access Networked Services: -Shaman: Sustaining Heritage Access through Multivalent Archiving -LIWA: Living Web Archives -Keep-it: Kultur, eCrystals, EdShare (and NECTAR) - Preserve It  IT-oriented Challenges in Digital Preservation  Some Digital Preservation Research at TUWIEN  Conclusions

39 ................................................. Securing Communication with the future Research & Development Project in Digital Preservation

40 ................................................. SHAMAN Objectives  SHAMAN will establish an Open Distributed Resource Management Infrastructure Framework enabling Grid- based Resource Integration, that is firmly grounded in a conceptual and technical reference architecture.  SHAMAN will develop and integrate technologies to support Contextual and Multivalent Archival and Preservation Processes to enable proper preservation management and policies.  SHAMAN will support Managing of Future Requirements by safeguarding Interoperability with Future Environments based on evidence gathered through the characterisation of digital objects, their (metadata) context and their preservation environment, resulting in the evolution of preservation policies.

41 ................................................. SHAMAN will deliver a next-generation Digital Preservation framework, with three prototypical applications. SHAMAN Outputs  scientific publishing in libraries and documents in governmental archives  digital objects used in industrial design and engineering  data resources used in e-Science applications

42 ................................................. SHAMAN Framework

43 ................................................. SHAMAN Consortium SHAMAN Collaborators:

44 ................................................. Overview  Digital Preservation Projects in Europe large number, small selection provided below -DPE: Digital Preservation Europe, EU, FP6 -Caspar: Cultural, Artistic and Scientific Knowledge for Preservation, Access and Retrieval -Planets: Preservation and Long-term Access Networked Services: -Shaman: Sustaining Heritage Access through Multivalent Archiving -LIWA: Living Web Archives -Keep-it: Kultur, eCrystals, EdShare (and NECTAR) - Preserve It  IT-oriented Challenges in Digital Preservation  Some Digital Preservation Research at TUWIEN  Conclusions

45 .................................................  FP7 project funded by the European Commission  Started in Feb 2008  EA, L3S, Max Planck, Hungarian accademy of science, Hanzo Archives, libraries and archives

46 ................................................. Users and challenges identified User typeMain concernLocker National LibrariesSize of archivesNo control of size and its evolution with time with implication on costs control. Other LibrariesCoherenceSelecting and keeping appropriate content for their user community is difficult on the web Institutional ArchivesFidelityLack of fidelity to the original TV and radio ArchivesVariety of content typeImpossibility to archive streaming MuseumsVariety of content typeDifficulty to archive non-standard formats Corporate ArchivesFidelityFidelity to the original and temporal coherence for compliance ResearchersFidelityDifference between original web and what current WA can deliver End UsersInterpretabilityImpression of getting lost in WA

47 ................................................. Technology concerned

48 ................................................. Approach Example: Semantic Evolution Detection  Time-Specific Term Contexts Leningrad@1970 (Soviet Union, Hermitage, Moscow, Neva River, Baltic Sea,…) Saint Petersburg@2009 (Russia, Hermitage, Moscow, Neva River, Baltic Sea,…)  Across-Time Semantic Similarity compares term contexts and shows high similarity between Leningrad@1970 and Saint Petersburg@2009  Term Coherence analyzes term contexts and shows that Saint Petersburg@2009 and Hermitage@2009 are commonly used together

49 ................................................. Approach  Good query reformulations contain query terms similar to the original query terms that are commonly used together  Examples Saint Petersburg Museum  Leningrad Museum ✔ Leningrad Cowboys  Saint Petersburg Cowboys ✖ iPod Hearing Damage  Walkman Hearing Damage ✔ disabled / handicapped / special needs

50 ................................................. Overview  Digital Preservation Projects in Europe large number, small selection provided below -DPE: Digital Preservation Europe, EU, FP6 -Caspar: Cultural, Artistic and Scientific Knowledge for Preservation, Access and Retrieval -Planets: Preservation and Long-term Access Networked Services: -Shaman: Sustaining Heritage Access through Multivalent Archiving -LIWA: Living Web Archives -Keep-it: Kultur, eCrystals, EdShare (and NECTAR) - Preserve It  IT-oriented Challenges in Digital Preservation  Some Digital Preservation Research at TUWIEN  Conclusions

51 ................................................. KeepIt Kultur, eCrystals, EdShare (and NECTAR) – Preserve It!

52 ................................................. Project Overview  Aim: To create a number of exemplar preservation repositories from which others can learn  Small number of very diverse repositories Training Development Deployment 52

53 ................................................. Preservation Long Term Reliable Storage Risk Analysis Mitigation / Action

54 ................................................. Long Term Reliable Storage Export Plug-ins EPrints is expanding the number places in which plug-ins can be utilised. Import Plug-ins EPrints Core Interfaces, Submission Manager EPrints Core Interfaces, Submission Manager Database Controller Storage Controller CLOUD (Amazon S3)

55 ................................................. Overview  Why do we need Digital Preservation?  Digital Preservation Projects in Europe  IT-oriented Digital Preservation Challenges  Some Digital Preservation Research at TUWIEN

56 ................................................. DP Research  Some provocative (?) observations  IT R&D frequently suffers from disconnect between academia and practice -research independent of development -theoretical results that cannot be applied to practice  DP R&D driven strongly by practice -many good and useful results -reactive instead of proactive -results need to be applicable now -lacks creative prospect into problems of the future -lacks acceptability for non-perfect solutions -little real IT research by IT experts

57 ................................................. DP Research  DP research requires several IT sub-disciplines  IT research in DP needs to -build its own research agenda -live in an open-minded environment allowing (initially) non-perfect solutions -be evaluated following stringent standards of empirical evidence, validation and benchmarking -needs to be pro-active, foreseeing challenges of the future -address a broader scope of topics that go beyond migration/emulation, metadata and data management and similar currently dominant issues  DP an integral issue of all IT systems design

58 ................................................. DP Research Urgently needed within DP community:  Identify IT areas that need to contribute to DP research  For each area, come up with the top-5 research questions  These research questions should be concrete -formulated as a research hypothesis -formulated as a PhD topic  How can we get these IT-disciplines involved?  How can we get IT researchers motivated? -e.g. DPE research challenge -remember the “test” (repeating old experiments)!

59 ................................................. DP Research Potential areas:  Databases: -split of data and function and its description -PP-aware design and description -modeling data semantics for DP  IT security -secure documents, save formats -Signatures, long-term key management -DRM -long-term non-disclosure

60 ................................................. DP Research Potential areas:  Information Retrieval: -large-scale indexing and retrieval -evolution of semantics and spelling -modeling forgetting  Ethics -privacy, digital personalities and forgetting -information types and usage + IT support to enforce  Software Engineering -DP as systems engineering -secure workflows and trust -certification of system for DP fitness

61 ................................................. DP Research Potential areas:  Algorithms: -semantics from code -cross-compilation -support for digital archeology -evolution of the concept of file formats  Storage: -advanced storage technologies -management of large storage systems -hybrid analog/digital storage -self-describing/monitoring storage systems

62 ................................................. DP Research Potential areas:  User interfaces -Interfaces of the future -How to preserve/communicate interfaces long gone by  Application domains -effect of the quantum computer on DP of conventional systems -mash-ups and distributed applications -pervasive computing and sensor networks -virtual worlds -threat scenarios in DP -home users

63 ................................................. DP Research  Many further areas – basically: all sub-disciplines of IT affected?  What would be the most challenging research questions in each of these?  How can we get experts in these disciplines get involved with DP research?  How can we make DP research more solid research by IT standards?

64 ................................................. Overview  Why do we need Digital Preservation?  Digital Preservation Projects in Europe  IT-oriented Digital Preservation Challenges  Some Digital Preservation Research at TUWIEN

65 ................................................. Overview  Some Digital Preservation Research at TUWIEN -Preservation Planning: PLATO -Small Home Office Archiving: HOPPLA -Establishing Context of Digital Information -Evaluating Emulators -Recovering Digital Objects from Audio Wave Form -Preserving Virtual Worlds -Ethical Issues in Web Archiving -Digital Preservation Time Capsule  Conclusions

66 ................................................. Why Preservation Planning?  Several preservation strategies developed - For each strategy: several tools available -For each tool: several parameter settings available  How do you know which one is most suitable?  What are the needs of your users? Now? In the future?  Which aspects of an object do you want to preserve?  What are the requirements?  How to prove in 10, 20, 50, 100 years, that the decision was correct / acceptable at the time it was made? Preservation Planning

67 ................................................. Preservation Planning

68 ................................................. Preservation Planning

69 ................................................. Overview  Some Digital Preservation Research at TUWIEN -Preservation Planning: PLATO -Small Home Office Archiving: HOPPLA -Establishing Context of Digital Information -Evaluating Emulators -Recovering Digital Objects from Audio Wave Form -Preserving Virtual Worlds -Ethical Issues in Web Archiving -Digital Preservation Time Capsule  Conclusions

70 ................................................. Hoppla  Archiving Solutions for - SME - SOHO - Private Users  No/little expertise  Service-oriented concept  Similar to Antivirus Software  User sends collection profile  Experts perform Pres. Planning  Rules for Preservation Actions are provided  Combines back-up and migration Home Office Painless Persistent Long-term Archiving

71 ................................................. HOPPLA Principles  Need for bit-stream and logical object preservation -combine back-up and migration  No expertise on and effort for digital preservation issues -fully automatic solution outsourcing DP expertise, inspired by current antivirus solutions  Stability and system independence -rely on plain file system storage with redundant XML metadata  Trust and accountability -aim to fulfill core requirements of audit and certification initiatives  Privacy -data resides with users, control over information sent to server

72 ................................................. HOPPLA Architecture

73 ................................................. Overview  Some Digital Preservation Research at TUWIEN -Preservation Planning: PLATO -Small Home Office Archiving: HOPPLA -Establishing Context of Digital Information -Evaluating Emulators -Recovering Digital Objects from Audio Wave Form -Preserving Virtual Worlds -Ethical Issues in Web Archiving -Digital Preservation Time Capsule  Conclusions

74 ................................................. Context of Information  Digital information objects are not isolated -Exist in a specific context (to other objects)  Context is important for -Correct interpretation -Establishing authenticity -Ensuring appropriate use  Context is difficult to establish/document  Often missing / incomplete / incorrect when manually entered  Automatically extract context of objects -Establish contextual relations between them, generate new meta-data  Visualisation/interaction tool‏

75 ................................................. Context Dimensions:  Currently establishing context along -Time (creation, modification,...)‏ -Type, e.g. MIME types -Contributors / Social: people involved Creators, Modifiers, Users -Content related features e.g. same images embedded, same keywords  Other types of dimensions possible, e.g. concurrent usage of documents,... Applications:  Ingest of donations, disaster recovery, IR Context of Information

76 ................................................. Data Warehouse – Snowflake schema Context of Information

77 ................................................. Context of Information

78 ................................................. Overview  Some Digital Preservation Research at TUWIEN -Preservation Planning: PLATO -Small Home Office Archiving: HOPPLA -Establishing Context of Digital Information -Evaluating Emulators -Recovering Digital Objects from Audio Wave Form -Preserving Virtual Worlds -Ethical Issues in Web Archiving -Digital Preservation Time Capsule  Conclusions

79 .................................................  Testing if significant properties stay intact  It is well known how to extract and compare significant properties for migrated objects  With emulation original object is unchanged, comparison of a rendered version is necessary  Detection of a change in behaviour of object  Interactivity has to be considered (applications, video games, interactive art) Evaluation of Emulation

80 ................................................. Goals  Perform repeatable experiments  Extract significant properties from the rendering process  Automatically compare significant properties extracted from different emulation environments  Allow preservation planning for emulation environments  Automate parts of the process of testing emulators Evaluation of Emulation

81 .................................................  Different significant states -target state, series of states, continuous stream  Extracting properties from emulation environment -in characterization language (e.g. XCL) -e.g. cycles, frame rate (average/min/max) number of files/bytes accessed on I/O devices, event logs, screenshots, video streams -not supported yet by emulators  Deterministic behaviour of object necessary -identify and keep constant causes of non-deterministic behaviour -e.g. user input, hardware timer values, random seed generation  Extracting rendered object from emulation environment -from different levels: system memory, video memory, output device Evaluation of Emulation

82 ................................................. Overview  Some Digital Preservation Research at TUWIEN -Preservation Planning: PLATO -Small Home Office Archiving: HOPPLA -Establishing Context of Digital Information -Evaluating Emulators -Recovering Digital Objects from Audio Wave Form -Preserving Virtual Worlds -Ethical Issues in Web Archiving -Digital Preservation Time Capsule  Conclusions

83 .................................................  Original system Philips G7400 from 1983 encodes data in audio streams for recording on audio tapes  Migration Tool to extract the encoded data from the audio stream and migrate to non-obsolete formats  Extracted data: Software, screenshots, text & numeric data  Can read data that is unreadable with original system Recovering Digital Objects from Audio Wave Form

84 ................................................. Overview  Some Digital Preservation Research at TUWIEN -Preservation Planning: PLATO -Small Home Office Archiving: HOPPLA -Establishing Context of Digital Information -Evaluating Emulators -Recovering Digital Objects from Audio Wave Form -Preserving Virtual Worlds -Ethical Issues in Web Archiving -Digital Preservation Time Capsule  Conclusions

85 .................................................  Alternative strategy: not the objects and world data are extracted but scenes of interaction are recorded  Drone that moves inside Second Life and video records areas with user action  Besides technical difficulties ethical and legal issues Preserving Virtual Worlds

86 ................................................. Overview  Some Digital Preservation Research at TUWIEN -Preservation Planning: PLATO -Small Home Office Archiving: HOPPLA -Establishing Context of Digital Information -Evaluating Emulators -Recovering Digital Objects from Audio Wave Form -Preserving Virtual Worlds -Ethical Issues in Web Archiving -Digital Preservation Time Capsule  Conclusions

87 ................................................. Ethics & Web Archiving  Web is very volatile  Web archiving is an essential activity to ensure valuable content is being preserved  Web Archives contain a wealth of extremely valuable information But:  Currently most archives are closed to public  Mostly due to legal reasons  Need a legal solution Is this all?

88 .................................................  What should such a legal solution look like?  Is it only a legal problem?  There are things that are legal, but ethically dubious  (There are things that are illegal, but ethically acceptable)  Privacy is an essential good  Most societies are increasingly privacy-aware  Are there ethical concerns, and if so -Are we aware of them? -Can we do something to address them? Ethics & Web Archiving

89 ................................................. Assumptions and a number of questions:  The Web is a new publication medium – Is it?  The ephemeral nature of Web pages is a “design fault” - Is it?  A Web Archive is merely a collection of publicly available information – Is it? Ethics & Web Archiving

90 ................................................. Assumptions underlying Web Archiving:  The Web is a new publication medium? -Are people “publishing” (conscious decision, effort invested,…) -If so, are they aware of it? -Are kids allowed to publish? -Which parts of the Web are publishing, which are communication? (ako chatting-in-the-bus?) -Do we have a choice of NOT putting some things on the Web? Ethics & Web Archiving

91 ................................................. Assumptions underlying Web Archiving  The ephemeral nature of Web pages is a “design fault”? -Post-it notes are based on a “faulty” glue -> should we put real glue onto them? -If the Web is a publication medium: may there be some who use it as such BECAUSE it is ephemeral? (art, temporary announcements, CV, …) -Does being ephemeral make it more a communication medium in the perception of some people? -Does society need en ephemeral way of communicating with larger communities in an ephemeral manner? (speaker’s corner, graffitti, …) Ethics & Web Archiving

92 ................................................. Assumptions underlying Web Archiving:  A Web Archive is merely a collection of publicly available information -True, but what about Holism? (The whole is more than the sum of it’s parts) -Does the ease of use, or the new possibilities of use, change the nature of an information collection? (full-text search, semantic analysis, IR as opposed to conventional archive catalogs) -Specialized person profile search engines, used by HR departments (special profile generation services to counter-act this) -Technical possibilities will increase in the future (video analysis, semantic analysis, reasoning, …) Ethics & Web Archiving

93 ................................................. Research Issues:  What are the ethical constraints, and how they can be more precisely defined or formalized,  Which approaches users of Web archives with potentially dubious intentions might employ to obtain information that should not be provided by privacy-respecting archives,  In how far technological solutions such as query analysis, machine learning and data mining can help in identifying potentially harmful queries, potentially incriminating content on Web pages, information worth of protection, or combinations thereof,  How legal regulations might be formulated in order to allow (partial) access to Web archive content in a save, ethically correct, and useful manner Ethics & Web Archiving

94 ................................................. Overview  Some Digital Preservation Research at TUWIEN -Preservation Planning: PLATO -Small Home Office Archiving: HOPPLA -Establishing Context of Digital Information -Evaluating Emulators -Recovering Digital Objects from Audio Wave Form -Preserving Virtual Worlds -Ethical Issues in Web Archiving -Digital Preservation Time Capsule  Conclusions

95 ................................................. Digital Preservation Time Capsule Digital Preservation suffers from  a lack of public awareness  solid understanding of the levels of complexity  being abstract / intangible  failing to graps people’s imagination  seeming to be rather simple (only storage?) even among some experts

96 ................................................. The Planets Digital Preservation TimeCapsule  is a scientifically solid & visually appealing showcase demonstrating general DP challenges & Planets solutions  is a tangible and exciting demo showing the level of complexity & the amount of information involved in preserving a few selected objects  aims at capturing the public’s and experts imagination, benefitting from a leveraging effect by involving media  May serve a basis for training, exhibitions and future research Digital Preservation Time Capsule

97 ................................................. The Planets TimeCapsule is inspired by  Voyager Golden Record  Rosetta Stone  Long Now Rosetta Project  Clock for the Long Now and other initiatives aimed at making long-term thinking graspable Digital Preservation Time Capsule

98 .................................................  Pick a set of Source Objects  Describe them with PC-tools and PREMIS metadata  Add representation information -file format standards & documentation -programming language definitions, compiler info (also for secondary objects)  Add viewer (binary + source + OS + PREMIS + PC)  Migrate them to more stable formats -PA tools: description + source (+ PREMIS + PC) -PP: plan and evaluation of loss (+ PREMIS + PC)  Store them on different data carriers -Carrier description -Device description -File system description Digital Preservation Time Capsule

99 ................................................. Overview  Why do we need Digital Preservation?  Digital Preservation Projects in Europe  IT-oriented Digital Preservation Challenges  Some Digital Preservation Research at TUWIEN

100 .................................................  Digital Preservation is an important issue  Affects everybody and in all domains -cultural heritage, industry, science, society at large, you and me!  Significant research & development efforts  Number of solid solutions  Number of challenging open research issues  Need to involve core IT experts from different domains  Need to change perspective on DP research: -from ex-post to pro-active -from external system to integrated part of all IT system design Summary

101 .................................................

102  Paper, Tutorial, Panel & Workshop Submission 5 May 2010  Notification of Acceptance 18 Jun 2010  Submission of Final Versions11 Jul 2010  iPRES 02010 September 19-25 2010 http://www.ifs.tuwien.ac.at/dp/ipres2010 iPRES 02010 Dates

103 ................................................. Thank you! http://www.ifs.tuwien.ac.at/dp


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