# Thermal Energy & Heat Transfer Advanced Physical Science.

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Thermal Energy & Heat Transfer Advanced Physical Science

Kinetic Energy Energy of Motion KE = ½ m* V 2 Pretend you are a particle and jump around The more you jump around…the more KE you have All matter contains particles that are moving all the time Absolute zero=when matter stops moving (never been reached)

Temperature Temperature is the measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object. The gas particles on the right have a higher KE than those on the left (therefore higher temperature)

Temperature (con’t) Temperature does NOT depend on how much substance you have The contents of the teapot and the coffee cup are at the same temperature

Thermal Energy TOTAL KE of all the particles that make up the object More Particles = More TOTAL KE or… The more substance present, the greater the thermal energy (there is more thermal energy in the pan of soup than the bowl) The higher the temperature, the higher the thermal energy

Heat The energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures (diff Ave KE). Energy is transferred from faster (warmer) molecules to slower (cooler) molecules ▫Occurs through collisions between molecules HEAT MOVES!! (not cold) Heat is what causes something to FEEL hot or cold ▫Ex: A doctor’s stethoscope on your back…your body heat is moving to the stethoscope.

Heat Transfer-3 types Conduction Convection Radiation

Heat Transfer - Conduction Conduction- transfer of energy through matter by the direct contact of particles When objects that have different temperatures come into contact, energy passes from warmer to cooler object until both have same temperature. ▫Occurs because particles are in constant motion ▫KE transferred as particles collide

Heat Transfer – Conduction (cont) Conduction can also occur within an object such as the spoon (below). The part of the spoon in the soup is hotter than the edge. Conduction works best in solids- especially metals- because particles are close together Metals- good conductors-because electrons move easily & transfer KE to nearby particles

Heat Transfer - Convection Convection- transfer of thermal energy by the movement (or circulation) of a fluid Fluid- any material that flows (can be liquid or gas) Convection currents transfer heat from warmer to cooler parts of a fluid.

Conduction and Convection Convection vs. Conduction- ▫Conduction involves collisions and transfers of energy. ▫Convection involves movement of the energetic particles from one location to another Conduction and convection can occur only when matter is present.

Heat Transfer - Radiation Radiation is heat transfer through space as electromagnetic waves. Does not require a medium.

Heat Transfer-summary of all types Conduction, Convection, and Radiation can occur in the same situation