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I. The Water Molecule Water has a partial negative charge at one end, and partial positive charge on the other. Water has a partial negative charge at.

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Presentation on theme: "I. The Water Molecule Water has a partial negative charge at one end, and partial positive charge on the other. Water has a partial negative charge at."— Presentation transcript:

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2 I. The Water Molecule Water has a partial negative charge at one end, and partial positive charge on the other. Water has a partial negative charge at one end, and partial positive charge on the other. Molecules with charges that are not distributed evenly are “polar” Molecules with charges that are not distributed evenly are “polar”

3 I. The Water Molecule Hydrogen bonding Hydrogen bonding –Is the attraction between a hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge and another atom with a partial negative charge. Hydrogen bonds are not as strong as covalent or ionic bonds. Water is able to form multiple hydrogen bonds.

4 I. The Water Molecule Cohesion is an attraction between molecules of the same substance Cohesion is an attraction between molecules of the same substance –It causes water molecules to be drawn together, which is why drops of water form beads on a smooth surface.

5 I. The Water Molecule Adhesion is an attraction between molecules of the different substances. Adhesion is an attraction between molecules of the different substances. –Is responsible for causing water in glass columns to rise.

6 I. The Water Molecule Heat capacity is the amount of heat energy that is required to increase the temperature of a substance. Heat capacity is the amount of heat energy that is required to increase the temperature of a substance. – Multiple bonds in water molecules requires a large amount of heat energy to cause those molecules to move faster.

7 II. Solutions and Suspensions A mixture is a material that is composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically, but not chemically combined. A mixture is a material that is composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically, but not chemically combined. –The two types of mixtures are solutions and suspensions. –Living things are composed of mixtures water

8 Solutions Are mixtures in which the components are evenly distributed throughout Are mixtures in which the components are evenly distributed throughout –The components of mixtures are a: Solute which is the substance that is dissolved. Solvent which is the substance that dissolves the solute.

9 Solutions Water dissolves salts, sugars, minerals, gases and other solvents like alcohol. Water dissolves salts, sugars, minerals, gases and other solvents like alcohol. Water is the greatest solvent on Earth. Water is the greatest solvent on Earth.

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11 Suspensions Are mixtures of water that have undissolved materials. Some materials do not dissolve when placed in water. Blood contains undissolved particles that remain suspended as blood moves through the body.

12 III. Acids, bases, and pH Acids are substances that: Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid. Acetic acid (vinegar) is a weak acid. have a pH below 7 and turns universal indicator paper yellow, orange or red form solutions containing hydrogen ions (H + ).

13 III. Acids, bases, pH Bases are compounds that produce Hydroxyl (OH - ) ions in solution. Examples are oven cleaners and bleach

14 III. Acids, bases, and pH The pH scale – –Is a measurement system that is used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen (H + ) ions in solution. The pH scale ranges from 0-14. – –Solutions with a pH below 7 are acidic. – –Solutions with a pH above 7 are basic. Each step on the pH scale represents a factor of 10.

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16 16 of 12© Boardworks Ltd 2009 What is the order of pH?

17 IV. Buffers Are weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp or sudden changes in pH. Are dissolved in life fluids to maintain homeostasis in organisms.


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