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Systemic and Pulmonary Circulations

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1 Systemic and Pulmonary Circulations
Systemic circulation Blood flows from the left side of the heart through the body tissues and back to the right side of the heart Pulmonary circulation Blood flows from the right side of the heart to the lungs and back to the left side of the heart

2 Systemic & Pulmonary Circulations – Notes page 12 (Book p
Systemic & Pulmonary Circulations – Notes page 12 (Book p.365) – SHADE RED & BLUE! Figure 11.3

3 The Heart: Associated Great Vessels
Arteries – carry blood Away from the heart Aorta Leaves left ventricle Carries oxygenated blood Pulmonary arteries Leave right ventricle Carries deoxygenated blood

4 The Heart: Associated Great Vessels
Veins – carry blood back TO the heart Superior and inferior venae cavae Enter right atrium Carries deoxygenated blood Pulmonary veins 4 Enter left atrium Carries oxygenated blood

5 The Heart: Associated Great Vessels Notes – page 11
Figure 11.2c

6 Blood Flow Through the Heart
Superior and inferior venae cavae dump blood into the right atrium From right atrium, through the tricuspid valve, blood travels to the right ventricle From the right ventricle, blood leaves the heart as it passes through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary trunk Pulmonary trunk splits into right and left pulmonary arteries that carry blood to the lungs

7 Blood Flow Through the Heart
Oxygen is picked up and carbon dioxide is dropped off by blood in the lungs Oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart through the four pulmonary veins Blood enters the left atrium and travels through the bicuspid valve into the left ventricle From the left ventricle, blood leaves the heart via the aortic semilunar valve and aorta to the rest of the body

8 Systemic and Pulmonary Circulations
Figure 11.3

9 Coronary Circulation Blood in the heart chambers does not nourish the myocardium The heart has its own nourishing circulatory system consisting of: Coronary arteries —branch from the aorta to supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood Cardiac veins —drain the myocardium of blood Coronary sinus —a large vein on the posterior of the heart, receives blood from cardiac veins Blood empties into the right atrium via the coronary sinus


11 Homeostatic Imbalance (add this to your notes)
When the heart beats at a rapid rate, the myocardium may receive inadequate blood supply because relaxation periods when blood flows to heart tissue are shortened. Angina pectoris = crushing chest pain that occurs when myocardium is deprived of oxygen Myocardial infarction = “heart attack” occurs from prolonged oxygen-deprived heart cells that die

12 The Heart: Conduction System
Intrinsic conduction system (nodal system) Built into the heart tissue Heart muscle cells contract without nerve impulses in a regular, continuous way

13 The Heart: Conduction System
Special tissue sets the pace: Sinoatrial node = SA node (“pacemaker”), is in the right atrium Atrioventricular node = AV node, is at the junction of the atria and ventricles Atrioventricular bundle = AV bundle (bundle of His), is in the interventricular septum Bundle branches are in the interventricular septum Purkinje fibers spread within the ventricle wall muscles

14 Heart Contractions – separate handout
Figure 11.6

15 Heart Contractions Contraction is initiated by the sinoatrial node (SA node) It starts each heartbeat & sets the pace for the whole heart Sequential stimulation occurs at other autorhythmic cells Force cardiac muscle depolarization in one direction—from atria to ventricles

16 Heart Contractions Once SA node starts the heartbeat
Impulse spreads to the AV node Then the atria contract At the AV node, the impulse passes through the AV bundle, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers Blood is ejected from the ventricles to the aorta and pulmonary trunk as the ventricles contract

17 Heart Contractions Tachycardia —rapid heart rate over 100 beats per minute Bradycardia —slow heart rate less than 60 beats per minutes

18 The Heart: Cardiac Cycle
Atria contract simultaneously Atria relax, then ventricles contract Systole = contraction Diastole = relaxation

19 Filling Heart Chambers: Cardiac Cycle
Atrial contraction Mid-to-late diastole (ventricular filling) Ventricular systole (atria in diastole) Early diastole Isovolumetric contraction phase Ventricular ejection phase Isovolumetric relaxation Ventricular filling Left atrium Right atrium Left ventricle Right ventricle Figure 11.7

20 The Heart: Cardiac Cycle
Cardiac cycle—events of one complete heart beat Mid-to-late diastole—blood flows from atria into ventricles Ventricular systole—blood pressure builds before ventricle contracts, pushing out blood Early diastole—atria finish refilling, ventricular pressure is low

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