2 Genetic Basis of Behavior ___________ are behaviors that are innate- or genetically inherited.Behavior influenced by genes can be selected on by natural selection, so behaviors shouldincrease the ______________(reproductive success) ofan organism in some way.In mammals, care foroffspring by femaleparents is innate.
3 Fixed Action Patterns Innate (inherited) Follow a regular, unvarying patternInitiated by a ______________________Examples:When a graylag goose sees an egg outside her nest, she will roll it back into the nest. She will also retrieve any object that resembles her egg. Even if its removed completely she’ll go through the motions of moving an egg back into the nest.Male stickleback fish defend their territory against other males. The red belly of males is the stimulus for aggression. Any object with a red underside will be attacked.
4 Imprinting Innate (inherited) A specific behavior is acquired Must happen during a ______________________Once acquired, the behavior is irreversibleExamples:In the first two days of life, graylag goslings will accept any moving object as their mother for life. Even a real mother introduced after the critical period will be rejectedSalmon hatch in freshwater streams and migrate to the ocean to eat. When they are ready to mate, they return to their birthplace to breed, identifying the exact location of the stream. During early life, they imprint the odors of their birthplace.
5 Associative Learning Also called _____________ ___________________. When an animal learnsthat two events are connected.ExampleDogs salivate when presented with food. Psychologist Ivan __________ conducted famous experiments related to this. He found that if a bell were rung before adog was given food, the dog would, after repeat experiences, salivate when the bell was rung alone (with no food). Dogs associated the bell with food.
6 Trial & Error Learning Also called _____________ ________________. Is a type of associativelearning.When an animal connects its own behavior with a particular response.This is how we train animals- positive and negative reinforcement.Example:Psychologist ___________ trained rats to push levers to obtain food or avoid painful shocks.
7 Habituation This is ___________ behavior (not innate) It allows an animal to ____________ a meaningless stimuli.Example:Sea anemones pull food into their mouths. If they are stimulated repeatedly with non-food items (sticks, for example) they will ignore the stimulus in the future.
8 Observational Learning This is a learned behavior.Occurs when animals _______ the behavior of another animal.Example:Japanese monkeys usually remove sand from food by brushing them with their hands. One monkey discovered that dipping food in water more easily rid the food of sand. Through observational learning, many of the other monkeys began to use water to clean their food.
9 InsightWhen an animal, exposed to a totally _______ situation and without prior experience, performs abehavior that generates adesirable outcome.ExampleA chimpanzee placed in aroom with food beyond theirreach will stack boxes up to getto the food.
10 Animal Movement __________- ___________ change in speed of animal in response to a stimulus. Example: when a bugs scurry when a rock is lifted.________- directed movement towards or away from a stimulus. _____________ is movement towards light, _____________ is towards a chemical. Example: moths fly towards light.___________- long distance, seasonal movements to find food or better environmental conditions. Example: whales, birds, elk, insects, and bats all move to warmer climates during the winter.
11 Animal Communication _______- pheromones are chemical animals secrete to communicate. Example: ants mark their trail._______- animals will make displays to show aggression or courtship. Example: Wolves will threaten each other by showing their teeth._______- making sounds. Example: Male frogs call to attract females and ward off other males._______- touching Example: Monkeys will groom each other.
12 Foraging BehaviorsHerds, Flocks, Schools and Packs provide advantages:Most individuals are _______in the middle.Individuals can trage off foraging and watching for predators- two eyes are better than one!They can _______again a predator betterA group of predators can attack a _______ prey
13 Social Behaviors________________________- where there is a pecking order indicating status and power.____________- defending an area for food and/or mating._______- seemingly unselfish behaviors where an organism helps another animal. Usually occurs between relatives. Leads to inclusive fitness- the fitness of the group with similar genes.