# Introduction to Science. The Scientific Method – a systematic approach to solving a problem The Way Science Works.

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Introduction to Science

The Scientific Method – a systematic approach to solving a problem The Way Science Works

 State the problem / pose a question

 Research the problem / gather information by making observations

 Form a hypothesis – educated guess to answer the question

 Design an experiment Must be repeatable Controlled experiments only test one variable at a time  Independent variable – (manipulated) – the variable changed  Dependent variable – (responding) – the variable observed

 Observe and record data, then analyze  If the hypothesis is inaccurate, restate and develop a new hypothesis

 Arrive at a conclusion  Be able to repeat the experiment  Theory: a well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations or experimental results  Law: an observed pattern in nature, but does not provide an explanation for it

Metric Measurements & Measuring Tools  The metric system is based on units of 10

Metric Measurements & Measuring Tools Distance (length)  Unit of meter (m) = about 39 inches  Measured with a ruler (estimate to the 0.01 cm)

Metric Measurements & Measuring Tools Mass (how much matter)  Unit of gram (g) = about 1 paperclip  Measured with a balance (estimate to the 0.01 g)

Metric Measurements & Measuring Tools Volume (how much space)  Unit of Liter (L) for liquids = about 1 quart  Measured with a graduated cylinder  Must read the meniscus (bottom of liquid)

Metric Measurements & Measuring Tools Volume (how much space)  Unit of cubic centimeters (cm 3 ) for solids = about 1 sugar cube  Calculate with a formula (e.g., volume of cube = lwh)  1 mL = 1 cm 3

Metric Measurements & Measuring Tools Temperature (measure of the motion of particles)  Unit of degrees Celsius ( o C) = 22 o C is room temp  Measured with a thermometer

Metric Measurements & Measuring Tools Weight (affect gravity has on an object)  Unit of Newton (N) = about 1 apple  Measured with a scale

Metric Measurements & Measuring Tools Density (amount of matter in a given space)  Density = mass / volume (D = m/V)  Units of g/mL (liquids) or g/cm 3 (solids)  When calculating density, must use 5-Step Problem Solving

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