Presentation on theme: "The Articles of Confederation After the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776, it was important that a plan for keeping the colonies united."— Presentation transcript:
The Articles of Confederation After the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776, it was important that a plan for keeping the colonies united be passed.
What is a Confederacy? A loose union of independent states.
The Article of Confederation ●In 1777 the Articles were proposed. ●The states wanted a "league of friendship" among 13 independent states rather than a strong national government. ●By March 1781, all 13 states ratified, or approved, the Articles.
Government Under the Articles ●1)A unicameral, or one chamber, Congress where each state had one vote regardless of size or population. Every state legislature elected its representative. ●2)It did not set up an Executive Branch, or president. Nor did it set up a federal court system. ●3)Congress only had the powers expressed in the Articles. All other powers remained with the independent states.
Government Under the Articles Congress could: ● Borrow or request money from the states. ● Declare war and peace. ● Maintain an army and navy. ● Enter into treaties. ● Regulate affairs with Native Americans. ● Establish post offices. ● Decide certain disputes among the states.
Government Under the Articles Congress could not: ● Levy or collect taxes. ● Regulate trade. ● Force anyone to abide by the law. ● Pass laws without approval of 9 of 13 states. ● Amend the Articles without the consent of all 13 states. ● Establish an executive or judicial branch.
The Articles created a weak national government.
Did you know? Each state had its own Army, and nine states had a Navy under the Articles.
Achievements under the Articles ●Congress established a fair policy for development of lands west of the Appalachian, yielding all claims of these territories to the central government. ●Land ordinances, such as the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, set a principle for the territories to be made states. ●Allowed for a treaty to be signed with Great Britain in 1783.
The Need for a Stronger Government The federal government could not coordinate the actions of the states. ● 1)Quarrels over boundaries. ● 2)States were dealing directly with foreign nations. ● 3)The government had incurred a large debt from the Revolutionary War and had no means to raise money to pay it off. ● 4)An economic depression set in.
Shays’ Rebellion In 1787 economic trouble had led to many farmers unable to pay their mortgages so they lost their land or were imprisoned in Western Massachusetts. Several hundred angry farmer armed with pitchforks marched on the Springfield arsenal to get weapons.
Shays’ Rebellion Led by Revolution Capt. Daniel Shays, they wanted to prevent the courts from taking their land away and to force the state to pass laws to help them.
Shays’ Rebellion The Massachusetts militia put down the rebellion but the national government was powerless. This frightened American leaders.
Shays’s Rebellion Henry Knox, later the nation’s first secretary of war echoed a growing number of Americans, ready to agree to a stronger government, in a letter to George Washington: “This dreadful situation has alarmed every man of principle and property in New England. People wake as from a dream and ask what has been the cause of our delusion. What will give us security against the violence of lawless men? Our government must be changed, or altered to secure our lives and property.”
A convention is called in Philadelphia in May 1787. ●The Philadelphia convention was held for "the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation.” ●This sets the stage for a radical change in American government that was nothing short of a miracle.