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Genetic Engineering Chapter 13.

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Presentation on theme: "Genetic Engineering Chapter 13."— Presentation transcript:

1 Genetic Engineering Chapter 13

2 Changing the Living World
Selective breeding Breeding animals with characteristics we want to produce offspring with those Plants – Potatoes or flowers Animals – dogs or farm animals

3 Changing the Living World
Hybridization Cross different individuals to get offspring with favorable traits The result is a hybrid – an individual produced from the crossing of two different organisms.

4 Changing the Living World
Inbreeding Breed similar individuals over and over to get offspring with favorable traits

5 Changing the Living World
Increasing variation Inducing mutations Radiation Chemicals Produce mutants – an individual showing the mutation

6 Changing the Living World
Producing new bacteria Small size allows for millions to be treated Oil eating bacteria

7 Changing the Living World
Producing new plants Chemicals that prevent chromosomal separation Polypoidy Larger and stronger plants

8 13-2 Manipulating DNA How can scientists manipulate the code?
Scientists use their knowledge of the structure of DNA and its chemical properties to study and change DNA molecules.

9 13-2 Manipulating DNA Tools of Molecular Biology Genetic Engineering
Making changes in the DNA code of a living organism DNA Extraction Open a cell (mechanical and chemical methods) Use a chemical to separate the DNA from the rest of the cell parts (an alcohol)

10 13-2 Manipulating DNA Cutting DNA DNA molecules are very long
Restriction enzymes Enzymes that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides Sticky ends – these are the cut ends of the DNA

11 13-2 Manipulating DNA Separating DNA Gel electrophoresis
A mixture of DNA fragments is placed at one end of a porous gel (negative end), and an electric voltage is applied to the gel The molecules will move from negative to positive

12 13-2 Manipulating DNA

13 13-2 Manipulating DNA Using the DNA Sequence
Once it is separated it is manageable It can now be Read Studied Changed

14 13-2 Manipulating DNA Reading the Sequence
How do you read unknown DNA? You can use: DNA Polymerase Four nucleotides Chemical markers

15 13-2 Manipulating DNA Cutting and Pasting DNA synthesizers
Enzymes join artificial pieces of DNA with natural pieces Recombinant DNA Enzymes join genes from one strand of DNA with genes from another strand of DNA

16 13-2 Manipulating DNA Making Copies PCR or Polymerase chain reaction
Photocopying DNA over and over Use strands of DNA that are called primers

17 13-3 Cell Transformation Transformation
When a cell takes in foreign DNA and joins it with the existing DNA This external DNA becomes part of the cells DNA

18 13-3 Cell Transformation Transforming Bacteria
Foreign DNA is joined to plasmid Plasmid – small, circular DNA molecule Genetic marker – a gene that makes it possible see which bacteria are carrying the plasmid (that is marked) and which bacteria are not.

19 13-3 Cell Transformation Transforming Plant Cells
Using bacterium that normally infect plant cells and cause tumors Taking away the cell wall some plant cells will take up DNA on their own If successful recombinant DNA will be found in a chromosome of the cell

20 13-3 Cell Transformation Transforming Animal Cells
DNA can be injected directly into the nucleus of an egg Enzymes help insert the new DNA into the eggs existing DNA New DNA contains markers that tell which cells picked up the DNA

21 13-4 Applications of Genetic Engineering
Transgenic Organisms Organisms that contain genes from other species Firefly and tobacco plant Genetic engineering has increased the growth of biotechnology

22 13-4 Applications of Genetic Engineering
Transgenic microorganisms Bacteria reproduce quickly Uses: Can grow human proteins Insulin, growth hormone, and clotting factor

23 13-4 Applications of Genetic Engineering
Transgenic Animals Mimic human body for testing Faster growing animals No more food poisoning Grow human proteins

24 13-4 Applications of Genetic Engineering

25 13-4 Applications of Genetic Engineering
Transgenic Plants Natural insecticide Resist weed killing chemicals Food resistant to spoiling Weather resistant plants Grow vitamins or proteins

26 13-4 Applications of Genetic Engineering
Cloning Clone - A member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell Dolly – The cloned sheep from 1997 Save endangered species

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