2 Changing the Living World Selective breedingBreeding animals with characteristics we want to produce offspring with thosePlants – Potatoes or flowersAnimals – dogs or farm animals
3 Changing the Living World HybridizationCross different individuals to get offspring with favorable traitsThe result is a hybrid – an individual produced from the crossing of two different organisms.
4 Changing the Living World InbreedingBreed similar individuals over and over to get offspring with favorable traits
5 Changing the Living World Increasing variationInducing mutationsRadiationChemicalsProduce mutants – an individual showing the mutation
6 Changing the Living World Producing new bacteriaSmall size allows for millions to be treatedOil eating bacteria
7 Changing the Living World Producing new plantsChemicals that prevent chromosomal separationPolypoidyLarger and stronger plants
8 13-2 Manipulating DNA How can scientists manipulate the code? Scientists use their knowledge of the structure of DNA and its chemical properties to study and change DNA molecules.
9 13-2 Manipulating DNA Tools of Molecular Biology Genetic Engineering Making changes in the DNA code of a living organismDNA ExtractionOpen a cell (mechanical and chemical methods)Use a chemical to separate the DNA from the rest of the cell parts (an alcohol)
10 13-2 Manipulating DNA Cutting DNA DNA molecules are very long Restriction enzymesEnzymes that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotidesSticky ends – these are the cut ends of the DNA
11 13-2 Manipulating DNA Separating DNA Gel electrophoresis A mixture of DNA fragments is placed at one end of a porous gel (negative end), and an electric voltage is applied to the gelThe molecules will move from negative to positive
13 13-2 Manipulating DNA Using the DNA Sequence Once it is separated it is manageableIt can now beReadStudiedChanged
14 13-2 Manipulating DNA Reading the Sequence How do you read unknown DNA?You can use:DNA PolymeraseFour nucleotidesChemical markers
15 13-2 Manipulating DNA Cutting and Pasting DNA synthesizers Enzymes join artificial pieces of DNA with natural piecesRecombinant DNAEnzymes join genes from one strand of DNA with genes from another strand of DNA
16 13-2 Manipulating DNA Making Copies PCR or Polymerase chain reaction Photocopying DNA over and overUse strands of DNA that are called primers
17 13-3 Cell Transformation Transformation When a cell takes in foreign DNA and joins it with the existing DNAThis external DNA becomes part of the cells DNA
18 13-3 Cell Transformation Transforming Bacteria Foreign DNA is joined to plasmidPlasmid – small, circular DNA moleculeGenetic marker – a gene that makes it possible see which bacteria are carrying the plasmid (that is marked) and which bacteria are not.
19 13-3 Cell Transformation Transforming Plant Cells Using bacterium that normally infect plant cells and cause tumorsTaking away the cell wall some plant cells will take up DNA on their ownIf successful recombinant DNA will be found in a chromosome of the cell
20 13-3 Cell Transformation Transforming Animal Cells DNA can be injected directly into the nucleus of an eggEnzymes help insert the new DNA into the eggs existing DNANew DNA contains markers that tell which cells picked up the DNA
21 13-4 Applications of Genetic Engineering Transgenic OrganismsOrganisms that contain genes from other speciesFirefly and tobacco plantGenetic engineering has increased the growth of biotechnology
22 13-4 Applications of Genetic Engineering Transgenic microorganismsBacteria reproduce quicklyUses:Can grow human proteinsInsulin, growth hormone, and clotting factor
23 13-4 Applications of Genetic Engineering Transgenic AnimalsMimic human body for testingFaster growing animalsNo more food poisoningGrow human proteins