Essential Question 1. Why do people migrate? 2. How is urban life different from rural life?
3 Types of Immigration People moved around the United States in 3 different directions during the 1800’s. Movement to the U.S. from a foreign nation Movement to the cities from rural areas Movement to the western frontier
Arriving in America “Birds of Passage”: young men who worked a short period of time then returned home. Old Immigration: Immigrants came from Northwest and Central Europe. New Immigration: Immigrants arrived from Eastern and Southern Europe. Once they arrived, most immigrants settled in the city where they entered because the could not afford to move. Nativism: feeling of favoring native-born Americans
Excluding Asians Asian workers became targets of poor treatment because their culture was different than Europeans. Asians found the path to acceptance was difficult. Chinese Exclusion Act: prohibited Chinese laborers from entering the country if they did not already have family here Gentlemen’s Agreement: compromise with Japan to end segregation of Japanese students in San Francisco’s schools in exchange for Japan to stop issuing passports to laborers.
Going to the City Between 1880-1910, the population of Americans living on the farm fell from 72% to 54%. By 1890, 150,000 African Americans had moved to northern cities. As the poor farmers moved into the cities, the wealthier city residents moved to the suburbs. To handle the increasing population, poor tenement housing was constructed. Ghettos, area in which one ethnic or racial group dominated, emerged.
Results of City Growth Political Machines: unofficial city organization designed to keep a particular group in power Worked through an exchange of favors Successful because they bribed immigrants to support the party with promises of food, shelter and jobs Most notorious was New York’s Boss Tweed of the Tammany Hall political machine.
Moving to the Western Frontier Life was not as easy on the western frontier as advertised. Homestead Act: gave free land to settlers willing to farm the land for 5 years Complaints: Tariffs made manufactured goods too expensive. Railroads charged farmers more than manufacturers to ship goods.
Reforming the Wild West The Grange: organized farmers to buy supplies in bulk and to represent the farmers against the government. Populists: political party formed to fix the problems faced by the farmers Increase the circulation of money Progressive Income Tax: taxes increase as income increases Government ownership of transportation and communication systems Eight-hour work day (to attract urban supporters)