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Course no. 9 Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Author: Prof. Radu Ciupa The Theory of Electric Circuits

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About the Course Aims –To provide students with an introduction to electric circuits Objectives –To introduce the concept of resonance in electric circuits

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Resonance in electric circuits: -Resonance in a series circuit -Resonance in a parallel circuit -Resonance in real circuits -Resonance in inductively coupled circuits Electrostatics Topics of the course

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Chapter 4 RESONANCE IN ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Saturday, November 14, 20154

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Chapter 4. Resonance in electric circuits. Saturday, November 14, 20155 - at resonance : Q = 0 (meaning X = 0 or B = 0) - the phase shift between I and U is 0 (sin φ = 0) Remarks: a) X = 0 corresponds to the series resonance, b) B = 0 corresponds to the parallel resonance c) at resonance the current has an extreme

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Chapter 4. Resonance in electric circuits. Saturday, November 14, 20156 4.1 RESONANCE IN A SERIES CIRCUIT. -The resonance condition: Q = 0=>X = 0 or - the angular resonant frequency:

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Chapter 4. Resonance in electric circuits. Saturday, November 14, 20157 The vector diagram (phasorial representation): Remarks: a)R does not influence the resonance. b) U = U R = RI is minimum (X = 0), the current is maximum: c) U L = U C : voltage resonance! d) if→ overvoltages., because → the characteristic impedance of a series resonant circuit

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Chapter 4. Resonance in electric circuits. Saturday, November 14, 20158 - the quality factor (or Q-factor) It shows how many times the voltage across the inductor or across the capacitance of a series resonant circuit (at resonance) is greater than the applied voltage. - the damping factor - for the R, L, C series circuit:

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Chapter 4. Resonance in electric circuits. Saturday, November 14, 20159

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Chapter 4. Resonance in electric circuits. Saturday, November 14, 201510 Note: U cmax = U Lmax

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Chapter 4. Resonance in electric circuits. Saturday, November 14, 201511 4.2 RESONANCE IN A PARALLEL CIRCUIT. -The resonance condition: Q = 0 => B = 0 - the angular resonant frequency: Remark: In practice (that is having real L and C), the resonant frequencies are different for the series and parallel connections.

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Chapter 4. Resonance in electric circuits. Saturday, November 14, 201512 The vector diagram (phasorial representation): Remarks: a)I = I R = GU = U/R is minimum (B = 0), the current is minimum: b) I L = I C : current resonance! c) if→ overcurrents., because the characteristic admittance of a parallel resonant circuit

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Chapter 4. Resonance in electric circuits. Saturday, November 14, 201513 - the quality factor - the damping factor

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Chapter 4. Resonance in electric circuits. Saturday, November 14, 201514 4.3 RESONANCE IN REAL CIRCUITS. In a parallel circuit, the resonance occurs when B e = 0

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Chapter 4. Resonance in electric circuits. Saturday, November 14, 201515 Remarks: a)if there is resonance; b)if there is no resonance; c)if,→ the same as for a series resonant circuit d)if, → the resonance can occur at any frequency in this case:

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Chapter 4. Resonance in electric circuits. Saturday, November 14, 201516 4.4 RESONANCE IN INDUCTIVELY COUPLED CIRCUITS. It is possible to obtain resonance in the primary circuit, in the secondary circuit or simultaneously in both circuits. where

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Chapter 4. Resonance in electric circuits. Saturday, November 14, 201517 It results: The resonance occur when X e = 0 : Remarks: a)the resistance R 1 does not influence the resonance, while R 2 influences the resonance; b)the realization of the resonance of inductively coupled circuits is important especially in radio frequencies circuits, we can approximate

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Chapter 4. Resonance in electric circuits. Saturday, November 14, 201518 where:is the coefficient of coupling, is the resonance frequency of the primary circuit is the resonance frequency of the secondary circuit

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Chapter 4. Resonance in electric circuits. Saturday, November 14, 201519 (critical coupling)

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