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Unit 1 “The First Americans Through the French and Indian War” August 19, 2014 1.

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1 Unit 1 “The First Americans Through the French and Indian War” August 19, 2014 1

2 Unit 1 Section 1 “America Before the Europeans” Trends and Themes Humans first came to the Americas over a land bridge connecting Asia to Alaska more than 15,000 years ago, during the last ice age. Over time, these nomadic hunting groups dispersed across the continent. As the groups founded permanent settlements and learned to farm, they formed tribes with distinct cultural and social practices. Tribes adapted their ways of life to the geographical regions in which they lived. 2

3 The Geography of the North America Pangaea supercontinent formed about 350 million years ago. started separating about 250 million years ago.separating Continental Drift & Tectonic Plates Mountains formed. Appalachian (older) Rocky (newer) Sierra Nevada (newer) 3

4 Appalachian Mountains 4

5 Rocky Mountains 5

6 1. What was the supercontinent that started separating about 250 million years ago? 2. What caused Pangea to separate? 3. What formed the mountain ranges? 4. What is the oldest mountain range in the United States? 6

7 The First Americans About 120,000 years ago, the Earth fell into an ice age. The northern polar ice cap grew southward, water solidified into ice, and ocean levels fell as much as 400 feet. With the lowering of the oceans, hidden land was exposed, including a land bridge (Beringia) that connected Siberia with Alaska. Between 15,000 and 50,000 years ago, various small nomadic hunting groups from Asia crossed the land bridge, becoming the first human inhabitants of the Americas. 7

8 The First Americans About 10,000 years ago, the Ice Age came to an end. The Earth’s atmosphere warmed. The inhabited land changed dramatically. Sea levels rose. Melting glaciers filled the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River basin with water. Glaciers receded northward. Frozen plains gave way to… deciduous eastern forests. grassy central plains. deserts throughout the West. In time Beringia disappeared. 8

9 The First Americans The descendants of the earliest Americans changed with the landscape. Ice Age animals, such as wooly mammoths, disappeared. Hunters began to prey on smaller game. They also fished and gathered local provisions, like seeds and nuts. About 5,000 years ago, some groups began to domesticate plants. Many in the Midwest and East gave up their nomadic lifestyle and established small, stable communities. This required much less land. 9

10 The Geography of the North America Ice Age (Wisconsin Glaciation) 70,000 - 10,000 years ago glaciers 2 miles thick / sea levels 300 feet lower 10

11 Migration Routes from Asia to America 11

12 The Populating of the Americas 12

13 13 1. During the last ice age, what happened to the ocean levels? 2. During the last ice age, what happened to the area between Siberia and Alaska, and what is this area named? 3. What effect did the creation of Beringia have on human migration? 4. When the last ice age ended, what effect did it have on ocean levels? 5. With the warming of the atmosphere about 10,000 years ago, how did the geography of North America change? 6. How did the changing geography of North America change native people’s lifestyles?

14 14 The Emergence of Tribes Once they established permanent settlements, Native American groups began to form what are known today as tribes. Difference tribes developed their own languages and social hierarchies, and distinct religious beliefs and practices. Many tribes invented specialized tools such as the bow and arrows, and mastered skills like pottery, weaving, and basketry. Tribes in neighboring geographic areas maintained contact with each other through trade and warfare. An expansive trade network developed that spanned the North and South America continents. However, the tribes remained distinct, adapting to its own particular geography. Modern-day anthropologists and archaeologists categorize Native American tribes by geographic area.

15 15 1. What caused the evolution of Native American tribes? 2. What are three societal differences that separated the tribes? 3. How did the different tribes maintain contact with each other?

16 16 The Emergence of Tribes Northwest Coast Chinook, Haida, and other tribes spanned the Pacific Coast from Alaska to California. The Northwest tribes built totem poles depicting supernatural creatures. They were non-nomadic hunters and fishermen. Chinook Plankhouse

17 17 The Emergence of Tribes California Within California, tribes such as Chumash and Pomo lived in small villages of about 100 people. They specialized in processing acorns, which were one of the many abundant resources that allowed local tribes to prosper. Pomo Wikiups

18 18 The Emergence of Tribes Southwest In the early history of the Southwest, the dominant Anasazi tribe, known for their elaborate cliff dwellings, mastered irrigation and farming. By the twelfth century, some villages had over 1,000 inhabitants. A system of roads connected many of these villages. The Anasazi traded as far south as northern Mesoamerica. About 1300, the Anasazi mysteriously abandoned their villages en masse. drought? warfare? depletion of natural resources? They spread throughout the Southwest. The Hopi and Zuni are descendants of the Anasazi.

19 19 Mesa Verde of the Anasazi

20 20 The Emergence of Tribes Great Basin, Plateau The Paiute, Shoshone, and Ute tribes made their home in the Great Basin, between the Sierra Nevada Mountains to the west and the Rockies to the east. This land, too dry for farming, gave rise to foraging bands who hunted small mammals and gather seed and nuts. Other tribes inhabited the Plateau, a high, flat expanse to the north of the Great Basin. They lived as food gatherers, picking berries, seeds, and roots. Shoshone Encampment

21 21 The Emergence of Tribes Plains The Cheyenne, Sioux, and other tribes hunted in the Great Plains, which extended from the Rocky Mountains to the Mississippi River. The Plains were largely uninhabited before the arrival of Columbus. When Europeans brought horses and guns into the Plains, the tribes developed into powerful hunting groups. Ogalala Lakota Tipi

22 22 The Emergence of Tribes Eastern Woodlands (1 of 2) The Five Nations of the Iroquois, controlled the Northeast. Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca Later the Tuscarora from North Carolina The Cherokee and other tribes inhabited the Southeast. The Fox, Chee, and others lived around the Great Lakes. The Mississippian culture dominated the Mississippi flood plains. While all these Eastern Woodlands tribes hunted, many were skilled in agriculture, employing the “slash and burn” technique and crop rotation to manage their land for food production. These tribes were also known for their skill with crafts and their well- developed trading network.

23 23 The Emergence of Tribes Eastern Woodlands (2 of 2) Of these Eastern Woodlands tribes, the Mississippian tribes in particular were skilled in small-scale architecture. Known as “mound builder,” they built large platform mounds at the center of their towns, which served as religious temples for ceremony or burial, or as homes of tribal leaders. Before the age of European exploration, the Mississippian centers collapsed and the inhabitants fled to establish small villages. Iroquois Longhouse

24 24 Cahokia largest and most influential urban settlement of the Mississippian culture Southwestern Illinois 600 – 1400 B.C. Population was about 40,000 at its peak. Abandoned by the sixteenth century. Why???

25 25 Monks Mound @ Cahokia

26 Native American Cultures Prior to the Arrival of Christopher Columbus

27 27 1. What are the six regional categories into which Native American tribes are divided? 2. List two characteristics for each of the six categories. 3. What was Cahokia? 4. List the members of the Five Nations of the Iroquois. 5. What group was added to form the Six Nations of the Iroquois?

28 Unit 1 Section 2 “The Colonial Period” Trends and Themes (1 of 2) Spain dominated the early years of European Exploration of the New World, with France a distant second. England did not get seriously involved in the New World until nearly a century after Columbus landed. After England defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588, the balance of power in the New World (and in Europe) shifted. After initial hardship in the colonies, English settlements showed the New World could bring profit and offered religious freedom. A quick buildup of colonial settlements began along the east coast of North America and continued through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 28

29 Unit 1 Section 2 “The Colonial Period” Trends and Themes (2 of 2) Under its mercantilist economic policy, England created laws ensuring that its colonies existed primarily to enrich the mother country. England did not enforce these laws too strictly, employing a policy of “salutary neglect,” for fear of alienating the colonists and thereby helping France’s interests in the New World. After the French and Indian War, England no longer worried about France as a threat, but faced huge war debts. England believed that the colonies should bear the brunt of the debt because the war was for their benefit. England ended Salutary neglect to the colonist’s dismay and anger. 29

30 30 Exploration Before Columbus By the time Christopher Columbus landed in the Western Hemisphere in 1492, the New World had already been “discovered” more than once. Of course, Native Americans were already here. Around 1000 C.E., Viking Norsemen led by Leif Ericson settled in Newfoundland in northeast Canada. These Vikings explored up and down the coast. The Viking settlements lasted about 500 years. Viking Longship Leif Erikson

31 31 Modern recreation of the Norse site at L'Anse aux Meadows (Newfoundland)

32 32

33 33 The Age of Exploration Though Columbus was not the first to discover the New World, his landing in the New World in 1492 is important. It ushered in an era of unprecedented European exploration and settlement in the Americas. This period is known as the “Age of Exploration.” During this age, European explorers searched for trade routes, overseas wealth, and adventure. Technological innovations spurred the exploration boom. A “maritime revolution” in Europe saw the invention of… the astrolabe, a device used to determine latitude. the caravel, a large ship of unprecedented speed. the magnetic compass.

34 34 Astrolabe

35 35 Replica of an old Portuguese Caravel

36 36 NameCountryAchievement Bartolomeu DiasPortugal1487/88: First to round the Cape of Good Hope Christopher ColumbusSpain1492: Reached Bahamas; explored Cuba, Haiti 1493: Established Santo Domingo John CabotEngland1497/98: Claimed Nova Scotia, Newfoundland for England Vasco da GamaPortugal1497/99: First to round the Cape of Good Hope and reach India Amerigo VespucciSpain Portugal 1499: Explored coast of South America for Spain 1501: Explored coast of South America for Portugal Ponce de LeonSpain1513/1521: Explored Florida Ferdinand MagellanSpain1519: Began the first circumnavigation of the globe Hernando CortezSpain1519-1522: Conquered Aztecs in Mexico Francisco PizarroSpain1530-1542: Conquered Incas in South America Hernando de SotoSpain1539-1541: Explored Florida, Georgia, Carolinas, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Texas Jacques CartierFrance1542: Traveled St. Lawrence River to Montreal Samuel de ChamplainFrance1608-1615: Explored Great Lakes, founded Quebec, established fur trade with Native Americans Henry HudsonNetherlands1609-1611: Sailed up Hudson River

37 37 1. What explorer landed in the Caribbean in 1492, which led to mass exploration and colonization of the Western Hemisphere? 2. What European settled in Newfoundland circa. 1,000 C.E.? 3. What technological advantage allowed the Norsemen sail to the New World? 4. What were European explorers looking for? 5. What were three technological innovations of the “maritime revolution” spurred the exploration boom?

38 38 The Major Players in the Age of Exploration Spain France the Netherlands England

39 39 Spain (1 of 2) Spain’s “Age of Exploration “ began with Columbus in 1492. In 1493, the Pope declared that all lands west of the Azores and the Cape Verde Islands belonged to Spain. Portugal disputed the papal decree. Compromise was reached with the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494. Portugal focused on navigation and geographic observation. Spain put their efforts in exploration and colonization.

40 40 Spain (2 of 2) Spain started sending expeditions led by conquistadors to the New World. Searching for gold, slaves, lucrative trade routes, and glory. By 1522, Hernando Cortez conquered the Aztecs in Mexico. By 1626, Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incas in Peru. Encomiendas were established. a system under which a Spanish soldier or colonist was granted a tract of land or a village together with its Indian inhabitants. Many indigenous people died from disease, malnutrition. The Portuguese imported slaves to replace the indigenous people. 1565 – St. Augustine, Fla. – First successful European settlement in North America. 1610 – Santa Fe, N.M. – Spanish colony established.

41 41

42 42 1. What was the Treaty of Tordesillas? 2. What brought about the Treaty of Tordesillas? 3. What people did Hernando Cortez conquer? 4. What people did Francisco Pizarro conquer? 5. What were Encomiendas, and why were they established? 6. Why did the Portuguese need to import African slaves? 7. What was the first successful European settlement in North America?

43 43 France France’s efforts were primarily in North America. Looking for a Northwest Passage. Jacques Cartier: 1534 - 42 – Three voyages up the St. Lawrence River. 1562 – Jean Ribaut unsuccessful attempt to establish a colony at Paris Island, S.C. 1608 – Samuel de Champlain established the first permanent French settlement at Quebec. Established a fur trade with the region’s Native Americans. By 1700, had established control of the St. Lawrence River, the Great Lakes, and the Mississippi River (the heart of North America). Of all the European powers, the French had the best relationship with the Native Americans.

44 44

45 45 1. Who made several exploratory trips up the St. Lawrence River for France? 2. Who established the first French settlement in North America? 3. What was the first French settlement in North America? 4. What was the Northwest Passage? 5. What enterprise was the French focused on in the New World? 6. Why is it said that the French controlled the heart of North America? 7. Of all the European nations, which had the best relationship with the Native Americans?

46 46 The Netherlands In 1609, Henry Hudson sailed up the Hudson River in search of a Northwest Passage while working for the Dutch East India Company. In 1625, the Dutch purchased Manhattan Island from the natives and established New Amsterdam. In 1664, the English took New Amsterdam and renamed it New York.

47 47 1. Who financed Henry Hudson’s voyage up the Hudson River? 2. What was Henry Hudson looking for? 3. What was the name of the Dutch settlement on Manhattan Island named? 4. Who took New Amsterdam from the Dutch in 1664, and what was it renamed?

48 48 England (1 of 2) England got a relatively late start to exploration and colonization in the New World. John Cabot claimed Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and the Great Banks for England in 1497. After Cabot, England became more concerned with domestic issues. However, English monarchs gave Letters of Marque to English pirates such as Francis Drake, Walter Raleigh, and John Hawkins. This gave them permission to attack and plunder Spanish ships. The Catholic Spanish felt threatened by the Protestant English. Francis DrakeWalter RaleighJohn Hawkins “Sea Dogs”

49 England (2 of 2) In 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh was granted a charter to establish a colony in North America. Several attempts failed at establishing a settlement on Roanoke Island. The last known as the “Lost Colony” in 1587. By the late 1600s, the English crown and Parliament were hesitant to spend money on colonization. Instead, joint-stock companies were formed. (public funding) These joint-stock companies and religious groups wanting to escape persecution were responsible for English colonization throughout the 1600s.

50 50 1. What were the three places John Cabot claimed for England in 1497? 2. After Cabot’s expeditions, why did England get a late start in exploration and colonization? 3. How did England attempt to disrupt Spain’s dominance in the New World? 4. Why did Spain feel more threatened by England? 5. Who did Elizabeth I grant a charter to establish a colony in North America in 1584? 6. Where specifically did Walter Raleigh make unsuccessful attempts to establish a colony? 7. Instead of the government financing colonization, what was used to finance exploration and colonization? Why? 8. What two groups were responsible for English colonization throughout the 1600s?

51 51 Effects of Colonization on Native Americans Colonization had a disastrous effect on the native populations. War, slavery, and starvation claimed many lives. Smallpox had the most devastating effect. Population of Mexico in 1519 was 25 million. By 1600 is was reduced to 2 million. The Spanish provided the Native Americans of the Great Plains with the horse. Within a few generations, the Plains Indians became expert on horseback, expanding their hunting, trading, and warring capabilities.

52 52 1. What killed approximately 90% of the Native American population by 1600? 2. What did the Spanish introduce to the Americas that dramatically changed Native American society, especially on the Great Plains?

53 53 The Early English Colonies Early English settlements were concentrated along the eastern coast of North America because… Spain dominated South America, Mexico, the West Indies, the American Southwest, and Florida. The French to the north and west controlled North America’s major waterways. Hostile Native Americans prevented English settlers from moving westward beyond the Appalachian Mountains.

54 54 The Three Types of British Colonies Royal colonies were owned by the king. Proprietary colonies, such as Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware, were basically land grants from the British government. Individuals were awarded huge tracts of land that they would then supervise and govern, usually in return for political or financial favors. The colonial governors reported directly to the king. Self-governing colonies, including Rhode Island and Connecticut, formed when the king granted a charter to a joint-stock company, and the company then set up its own government independent of the crown. The king could revoke the royal charter at any time and convert a self-governing colony into a royal colony.

55 55 1. What three things caused the English to concentrate their colonization along the eastern coast of North America? 2. List and discuss the three types of English colonies.

56 56 Jamestown In 1606, the Virginia Company of London received a charter from King James I. In 1607, 105 men land at the mouth of the James River in present-day Virginia and named it Jamestown. Jamestown was the first permanent English settlement in New World. It was a business venture, not a place to raise a family. When Captain John Smith and the first reinforcements arrived in 1608, only 38 of the original 105 had survived. They had focused on getting rich and not feeding themselves. Under Smith’s direction, the living conditions were improved. During the winter of 1608-1609, only 12 of 200 died. When Smith was wounded in 1609 and returned to England, things deteriorated. By 1610, 400 of the 500 inhabitants of Jamestown had died. Also, in 1610, the first Anglo-Powhatan War erupted.

57 57 Jamestown & Roanoke Island

58 58 Artist’s Depiction of Jamestown in 1614

59 59 Jamestown: Tobacco, Money and Success (1 of 2) Jamestown was not saved by gold or silver… It was saved by tobacco… John Rolf, and Englishman who married the Powhatan leader’s daughter, Pocahontas, introduced to the colony West Indian tobacco. From 1616 – 1619, Jamestown’s tobacco exports grew twenty-fold. Sensing the possibility for great profit, the Virginia Company dispatched money and supplies and awarded land grants to anyone able to pay for his own passage to Jamestown, or for the passage of another laborer.

60 60 Jamestown: Tobacco, Money and Success (2 of 2) As the colony grew in size, its members began to desire a better system of government. In 1619, the colonists formed a general assembly, the House of Burgesses. It was the first representative government in the New World. Its power was limited, because the Virginia Company could override its actions. In 1619, the first Africans were brought to Jamestown as indentured servants. By the 1640s, most Africans were bought and sold as slaves. In 1622, a second war with the Powhatan tribe broke out, tobacco prices slumped, and many from disease. The Virginia Company collapsed, King James I revoked their charter, making Virginia a royal colony in 1624.

61 61 Pocahontas and her son Thomas Rolfe

62 62 1. What was the first permanent English settlement in the New World? 2. How was Jamestown settled? - Who? - How? - Why? 3. Who and what saved Jamestown? 4. What was America’s first representative government? 5. How was the House of Burgesses limited? 6. What were the first Africans brought to Jamestown as? 7. Why did James I revoke the Virginia Company’s charter?

63 63 Plymouth Plantation (1 of 3) In 1602, 102 settlers sailed across the Atlantic Ocean on the Mayflower, having procured a patent for settlement from the Virginia Company of London. These colonist agreed to send lumber, fish, and fur back to England for seven years before they could assume ownership of the land. Most of these settlers were Separatists (Calvinists) from England who wanted to separate from the Anglican Church (the Church of England). These Separatists had originally left England for the Netherlands to escape religious persecution. The voyage to the New World offered and even greater escape.

64 64 Plymouth Plantation (2 of 3) In November of 1620, the Mayflower landed at Plymouth Bay, outside the bounds of the British possession of Virginia. Since they had no legal right to settle there, the leaders of the Pilgrims insisted that all males sign the Mayflower Compact. This established Plymouth Plantation as a “civil body politic” under the sovereignty of James I of England. The Mayflower Compact is often described as America’s first example of true self-governess.

65 65

66 66

67 67 Plymouth Plantation (3 of 3) The Pilgrims were unprepared for the harsh New England winter. About half of the settlers died by March 1621. Those who survived owed their lives to the Wampanoag. Especially, the English-speaking Samoset and Squanto. Actually not a Wampanoag… After that terrible first winter, Plymouth quickly grew and prospered. Within a few years, the colony expanded into Cape Cod and the southeastern part of present-day Massachusetts.

68 68 1. Who secured the charter for the Mayflower voyage? 2. What were the mayflower’s passengers? 3. Why were the Mayflower’s passengers coming to the New World? 4. What were Pilgrims? 5. Where did the Mayflower land? 6. What is often described as the Americas’ first example of self- governance? 7. How did the Pilgrims survive their first winter at Plymouth?

69 69 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1 of 3) During the first half of the seventeenth century, religious and political oppression in England grew worse. In 1628, the Puritans, struck a deal with the English government. The Puritans would leave England and settle north of Plymouth Plantation. The Puritans (Calvinists) would have political control of their colony. A theocracy would be established, and religion would be emphasized over trade. In 1630, under the leadership if John Winthrop, who had been elected governor, about 900 Puritans traveled to Massachusetts. They eventually settled at the site of present-day Boston. Massachusetts Bay was seen as “a city upon a hill,” a beacon of religious righteousness that would shine throughout the world. Being unprepared, about 300 died the first winter. By mid-1631, the worst was behind them, and the Massachusetts Bay Colony began to prosper.

70 70 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (2 of 3) Government of Massachusetts Bay Colony The Massachusetts Bay Colony was initially run by a General Court that allowed membership only to Puritan landowning men. After a public outcry, all Puritan freemen, regardless of wealth or holdings, were allowed entrance. As the number of settlers increased and the General Court became too large. The settlers established a representative government. They elected two representatives from each district of the General Court.

71 71 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (3 of 3) Religion and Massachusetts Bay The Massachusetts Bay Colony operated according to a system called congregationalism. Each independent church congregation served as the center of a community’s political and social life. Only those individuals with good standing in the church could participate in government. Roger Williams and others broke with the Puritan leaders over the strong relationship between church and state. Williams believed there should be legal separation between church and state, but there should be substantial cooperation. In 1635, Williams was banished from Massachusetts. In 1647, Williams established the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island denounced the Church of England and permitted religious freedom. Anne Hutchinson was another dissenter who was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. She settled in Rhode Island.

72 72 1. What were Puritans? 2. What agreement did the Puritans have with England? 3. What type of government did the Puritans establish? 4. Who was John Winthrop? 5. What was the Massachusetts Bay Colony to be seen as? 6. Discuss the evolution of the government of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 7. What is congregationalism? 8. Who was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, what colony did he establish, and what was his problem with the M.B.C.? 9. Who was later banished from the M.B.C. and went to Rhode Island?

73 73 The Protestant Revolution In 1557, Martin Luther, a German monk, posted his 95 Theses on Castle Church at Wittenberg. He was questioning the Church’s authority to sell indulgences. Those who questioned the practices and/or doctrine of the Church were called Protestants. There were many different Protestant sects. In Great Britain, the Church of England (Anglican Church) separated from the Church and became the official church of Great Britain. Within the Church of England there were dissidents. Pilgrims wanted to separate from the Anglican Church. Puritans wanted to purify (change) the Anglican Church. Both Pilgrims and Puritans were Calvinists who believed in predestination. The world is divided into “saints” and “sinners.” Salvation would be displayed by your everyday life.

74 74 1. Who was the catalyst of the Protestant Reformation? 2. What practice of the Roman Catholic Church was being challenged by Luther? 3. What were the followers of Luther and others who questioned the Roman Catholic Church called? 4. What was the Protestant church was established by Henry VIII in England? 5. What is the basic difference between Pilgrims and Puritans? 6. Pilgrims and Puritans are both Calvinists. What is Calvinism?

75 75 The Colonial Economy: Mercantilism (1 of 3) Beginning around 1650, the British government pursued a policy of mercantilism in international trade. Mercantilism stipulated that in order to build economic strength, a nation must export more than it imports. To achieve this favorable balance of trade, the English pass regulatory trade laws exclusively benefiting the British economy. These laws created a trade system whereby Americans provided raw goods to Britain, and Britain used the raw goods to produce manufactured goods. The manufactured goods were sold in Europe and back to the colonies. As suppliers of raw goods only, the colonies could not compete with Britain in manufacturing. English ships and merchants were always favored, excluding other countries from sharing in the British Empire’s wealth.

76 76 The Colonial Economy: Mercantilism (2 of 3) Between 1651 and 1673, the English Parliament passed four Navigation Acts meant to insure proper mercantilist trade balance. 1. Only English or English colonial shops could carry cargo between imperial ports. 2. Certain goods, including tobacco, rice, and furs, could not be shipped to foreign nations except through England or Scotland. 3. The English Parliament would pay bounties to Americans who produced certain raw goods, while raising protectionist tariffs on the same goods produced in other nations. 4. Americans could not compete with English manufacturers in large- scale manufacturing.

77 77 The Colonial Economy: Mercantilism (3 of 3) The colonists initially complained about these trade restrictions. In New England in particular, many colonists evaded the restrictions of the Navigation Acts by smuggling. There were never any real conflicts between the colonies and England. England developed a policy of salutary neglect towards the colonies. Trade laws that most hurt the colonial economy were not enforced. Threatened by the presence of the French in North America, the British did not want to alienate the much-needed colonies.

78 78 1. What economic policy did the British government pursue beginning about 1650? 2. Simply, how was mercantilism achieved and maintained by England? 3. What was the role of the American colonies in maintaining a favorable trade balance? 4. Were the colonies allowed to compete with British manufacturing? 5. What was passed by Parliament between 1651 and 1673 to insure a proper mercantilist trade balance? 6. What were the four components of the Navigation Acts? 7. How did the American colonists evade the Navigation Acts? 8. What is salutary neglect? 9. Why did the British chose not to strictly enforce the Navigation Acts?

79 79 The Triangular Trade British mercantilism manifested itself in the form of the triangular trade. Trade routes linked the American Colonies, West Indies, Africa, and England. Each port provided shippers with a payoff and a new cargo. New England rum was shipped to Africa and traded for slaves. Slaves were brought to the West Indies (the Middle Passage) and traded for sugar and molasses. Sugar and molasses were sent to England. Other raw goods were shipped from the colonies to England, where they were swapped for a cargo of manufactured goods. The triangular trade spurred a rise in the slave population and increased the merchant population. This formed a class of wealthy elites that dominated trade and politics throughout the colonies.


81 81 1. What was Triangular Trade? 2. What was the Middle Passage? 3. How did Triangular Trade affect the slave population in the American colonies? 4. How did the Triangular Trade affect the merchant population in the American colonies?

82 82 Native American Resistance There was some cooperation, but it was short lived. Disease, land ownership, and religion caused disputes. Pequot War (1627) Many Native Americans were massacred. King Phillip’s War (1675 – 1678) Many death’s on both sides. Colonists win. Native American resistance fades… Metacomet

83 83 1. What were the two armed conflicts between the colonists and the Native Americans in New England that we discussed? 2. What was the results of each?

84 84 Slavery in the Early Colonies The extensive use of African slaves in the American colonies began when colonists from the Caribbean settled in the Carolinas. Until then indentured servants or enslaved Native Americans mostly satisfied labor requirements. Tobacco and rice were labor intensive. After Bacon’s Rebellion, wealthy landowners did not want an abundance of landless white males. It was more difficult for the dark skinned West African slaves to hide. Slavery flourished in the South because of the nature of the land and a longer growing season as compared to the North. Even in the South, most people did not own slaves. Slavery did exist in the North but at a smaller scale. By the Civil War slavery was outlawed in most northern states. Atlantic slave trade was outlawed on January 1, 1808. Slavery was outlawed by the 13 th Amendment in December 1865.

85 85 1. Before Africans were imported as slaves, what were used to satisfy the needed labor force? 2. What were indentured servants? 3. Why did slavery flourish in the South vs. the North? 4. When was the Atlantic slave trade outlawed in the United States? 5. What abolished slavery and involuntary servitude in the United States? 6. When was slavery and involuntary servitude abolished in the United States?

86 86 Life in Colonial America By 1700, more than 250,000 people of European origin or descent lived within what is now the United States. These settlers covered much of the eastern seaboard. Each region of colonization was economically and socially distinct. Each area developed differently based on geography, immigration trends, and other factors.

87 87 The New England Colonies (1 of 4) The New England colonies spanned modern-day Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Vermont. New England’s economy centered on small farming, fishing, and home manufacturers, as well as sea trade and shipbuilding. New Englanders often lived 15-25 years longer than their British counterparts. Puritan communities were close-knit, and were expected to read the Bible. They placed great emphasis on education. New England was likely the most literate community in the world.

88 88 The New England Colonies (2 of 4) Religion dominated all aspects of life in New England. In order to vote or hold office, a person had to be a member in good standing of the church. Religious dissenters were subject to public spectacle or banishment. Fervent religious superstition also fueled New England’s most notorious scandal: the Salem Witch Trials of 1692 and 1693.

89 89 The New England Colonies (3 of 4) Beginning with the Mayflower Compact, and continuing with the Massachusetts Bay Colony charter, the New England Colonies quickly established a tradition of self government. By 1641, 55 percent of males in Massachusetts could vote – Much higher than in England. Connecticut developed a similar government with even more voting rights. All male landowners were granted suffrage under the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, which in 1639 became the first written constitution in the New World. The increase in self-government in New England went hand in hand with increased resistance against British authority. In an effort to create a united defense against Dutch encroachment and aggressive Native American tribes, colonists organized the New England Confederation in in 1643. 

90 90 The New England Colonies (4 of 4) England viewed this attempt to unite colonies as potentially dangerous. The confederation helped during King Phillip's War (1675-1676). In the end, infighting among the colonies doomed the confederation. The Massachusetts Bay Colony had its charter revoked by King James II, but after the Glorious Revolution, it was reinstated.

91 91 1. List the six modern-day states that make up the New England colonies. 2. What was the basis of economics in the New England colonies? 3. Why were New Englanders probably the most literate colonies in the world? 4. What dominated all aspects of life in the New England colonies? 5. What fueled the Salem Witch Trials? 6. What was the first written constitution in the New World? 7. What is suffrage? 8. Under the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, who were granted suffrage? 9. What was organized in 1643 to defend the colonies against Native American and Dutch encroachment? 10. What doomed the confederation?

92 92 The Middle Colonies (1 of 2) The Middle Colonies included New York and New Jersey, and then later Pennsylvania. England took control of New York and New Jersey (then New Amsterdam and New Sweden, respectively) from the Dutch in 1644. New York was made a royal province in 1685 and New Jersey in 1702. Both colonies were governed by a royal governor and a general assembly. Economically, these colonies relied on grain production, shipping, and fur trading with local Native Americans.

93 93 The Middle Colonies (2 of 2) In 1681, Charles II granted the last unclaimed tract of American land to William Penn. Penn, a Quaker, launched a “holy experiment” by founding a colony based on religious tolerance. Quakers were a religious group who practiced worship without ministers and were pacifists. The Quakers had long been discriminated against in the Americas and England for their religious beliefs and the refusal to bear arms. Seeking religious freedom, Quakers, Mennonites, Amish, Moravians, Baptists, and others flocked to the new colony. Pennsylvania became economically prosperous, in part because of the industrious Quaker work ethic. By the 1750s, Pennsylvania’s capital, Philadelphia, had become the largest city in the colonies with a population of 20,000.

94 94 1. What country lost control of New Amsterdam and New Sweden to the English? 2. What was New Amsterdam renamed? 3. What was New Sweden renamed? 4. How, who, and why was Pennsylvania founded? 5. What drew diverse peoples to Pennsylvania?

95 95 The Southern Colonies (1 of 3) Virginia, centered in Jamestown, dominated the Southern colonies, which included the Chesapeake colonies, Maryland, and the Carolinas. The region was more religiously and ethnically diverse than the other regions. The Southern colonies had immigrants from all over Europe. It also contained Catholics (especially in Maryland) and a large number of African slaves. Maryland was founded by Lord Calvert as a haven for Catholics. The Maryland Toleration Act (1649) was passed which guaranteed religious freedom for Trinitarians. In the South, families were smaller than in the other regions, because men outnumber the women. Men were needed to work on the region’s large plantations.

96 96 The Southern Colonies (2 of 3) Plantations, which produced tobacco, rice, and indigo, influenced all aspects of life in the South. These plantations drew many immigrants to the Chesapeake region during the seventeenth century through the institution of indentured servitude. Indentured servants were adult men, mostly white, who bound themselves to labor for a fixed number of years (usually 7). Once free, indentured servants still ad to struggle to survive. In 1676, a revolt, Bacon’s Rebellion, broke out. Nathaniel Bacon, an impoverished nobleman, accused the royal governor of Virginia of failing to protect the less wealthy farmers from Native American raids. Bacon led a group of about 300 farmers and indiscriminately attacked Native Americans. The royal governor branded him a rebel. 

97 97 The Southern Colonies (3 of 3) Bacon led his men to Jamestown, where he occupied, looted, and burned the city while demanding political reforms. Bacon died suddenly, the rebellion ended, but tensions remained between the rich and poor. As tobacco plantations grew, the demand for workers increased. Slavery became the preferred source of labor. Slavery proved to be economically profitable, and it eased class tensions. Slavery was officially sanctioned by law in 1660. At this time, fewer than 1,000 slaves lived in Maryland and Virginia. Over the next forty years, the number grew to nearly 20,000. Slavery later spread to the Carolinas, and by the early 1700 it was so entrenched in these areas that slaves outnumber free whites. Georgia was chartered at a penal colony. James Oglethorpe founded Savannah (1733) as a buffer between Charles Town and Florida (Spanish).

98 98 1. What was the dominate Southern colony, and what was its center? 2. Who founded Maryland, and why was it founded? 3. What was the Maryland Toleration Act (1649)? 4. Why were families smaller in the Southern colonies? 5. What were the three main crops on Southern plantations? 6. What caused Bacon’s Rebellion? 7. When was slavery sanctioned by law? 8. Why was Savannah, Ga. established?

99 99 Colonial Culture In eighteenth century Europe, the intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment championed the principles of rationalism and logic. While the Scientific Revolution worked to demystify the natural world. Many Americans who would later lead the American Revolution were heavily influenced by these ideas of reason and experimentation. The American most representative of Enlightenment ideas was Benjamin Franklin. Franklin devoted his life to intellectual pursuits. Benjamin Franklin

100 100 1. What was the Enlightenment? 2. What was the Scientific Revolution? 3. How did the Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution affect American revolutionaries? 4. What American most represented the ideals of the Enlightenment?

101 101 The First Great Awakening Perhaps in response to the religious skepticism espoused by the Enlightenment, the 1730s and 1740s saw a broad movement of religious fervor called the First Great Awakening. During this time, revival ministers stressed… the emptiness of material comfort. the corruption of human nature. the need for immediate repentance lest individuals incur divine fury. These revivalists, Jonathan Edwards and George Whitfield, stressed that believers must rely on their own conscience to achieve an inner emotional understanding of religious truth. The Great Awakening is often credited with democratizing religion, since revivalists ministers stressed that anyone who repents can be saved. Revival ministers reached out to all groups and classes. Old vs. New


103 103 1. What brought about the First Great Awakening? 2. What was the First Great Awakening? 3. What did the revivalists stress that believers must rely on? 4. What social class and group of people did the ministers reach out to?

104 104 Colonial Wars By the late 1600s, France and England had emerged as the two dominant forces in North America. The French and English jockeyed for position in Europe and the New World. This resulted in occasional wars that took place on both continents. This series of wars, which ranged through the first half of the 1700s, culminated in the French and Indian War (1754-1863). The fighting in Europe is called the Seven Years’ War.

105 105 The Path to War In the early 1750s, Virginia, Pennsylvania, France, and the Iroquois tribe all claimed ownership of the Ohio Valley The French began constructing forts to stave off English colonial advances and to maintain their fur trade with local Native Americans. In 1754, a young George Washington, on the orders of the Virginia governor, led 400 Virginia militiamen against the French. Washington was quickly forced to surrender and lead his men home. Following this defeat, colonial delegates gathered in Albany, N.Y. Benjamin Franklin submitted the Albany Plan, which called for the colonies to unify in the face of French and Native American threats. The delegates supported this attempt to establish a unified colonial government, but the colonies were not ready for union. British officials did not push for the union because they were wary of the powerful colonial entity it would create.


107 107 1. By the late 1600s, what two countries dominated North America? 2. In the early 1750s, what was the problem with ownership of the Ohio Valley? 3. Who led a British an expedition against the French, and what was its results? 4. Who introduced the Albany Plan? 5. What was the Albany Plan, and what brought it about? 6. Was the Albany Plan successful? 7. How did the British feel about the Albany Plan?

108 108 The French and Indian War (1765-1763) Soon after the Albany meeting, the French and Indian War broke out, pitting England against France and its Native American allies. This war paralleled the Seven Years’ War in Europe. England held a large advantage in men and supplies. The French used guerrilla tactics to humiliate the English. Eventually, the French were pushed out of the Ohio Valley into Canada. In 1759, English forces captured Quebec, effectively ending the war. The Treaty of Paris (1763) officially ended the war. Britain gained all land in North America east of the Mississippi River. Due to the costs of the war, England felt the colonies should pay their share of the war debt. England ended their policy of salutary neglect. This change in policy sparked an escalating tension between England and its American colonists that eventually led to the American Revolution.


110 110 1. What were the sides in the French and Indian War? 2. What war in Europe paralleled the French and Indian War? 3. What tactics did the French use? 4. What officially ended the French and Indian War? 5. What were the land concessions made by the French after the French and Indian War? 6. How and why did the French and Indian War affect the relationship between the American colonies and England?

111 111 The Writs of Assistance (1 of 2) Tensions between the colonies and England initially arose during the French and Indian War. Colonial traders smuggled French goods from the French West Indies in order to avoid English Molasses Act. The Molasses Act (1733) was a tax on molasses, rum, and sugar imported from non-British territories. As the French and Indian War debt accumulated, England strictly enforced the Molasses Act in order to raise revenue from the colonies. In 1760, England authorized British revenue officers to use writs of assistance. Writs of assistance served as general search warrants, allowing customs officials to enter and investigate any ship or building suspected of holding smuggled goods.

112 112 The Writs of Assistance (2 of 2) The writs were useful in combating smuggling. The colonists were furious. In 1671, Boston merchants challenged the constitutionality of the writs before the Massachusetts Supreme Court. They argued that the writs stood “against the fundamental principles of law.” Although they lost the case, the merchants and colonists continued to protest the writs, believing that Britain had overstepped its bounds.

113 113 1. What was the Molasses Act (1733)? 2. What caused the British to start strictly enforcing the Molasses Act? 3. What was authorized by Parliament in 1760 to assist in the enforcement of the Molasses Act? 4. What were writs of assistance? 5. How did the colonists react to these writs?

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