# GEOGRAPHY SKILLS HANDBOOK MS. MAITLAND PERIODS 1, 2, 3, & 4.

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GEOGRAPHY SKILLS HANDBOOK MS. MAITLAND PERIODS 1, 2, 3, & 4

IMAGINE… Think about a time when you have gone on a long-distance trip to a place you haven’t been to before. What did you bring on the trip? What were some items that you needed? Did you get there smoothly or were there any issues getting there? Please explain your experience. Manila, Phillipines

ESSENTIAL QUESTION What tools do geography skills provide? LEARNING OBJECTIVE I will be able to determine the various tools and terms Geographers use to study and understand the Earth

GLOBES AND MAPS Since Earth is round, a globe represents the most accurate depiction of geographic information such as area distance, and direction. Globes do not show much detail A printed map symbolizes all or part of a planet Usually shows more detail than a globe In order to show the globe in full, cartographers use mathematical formulas to transfer three-dimensional data into two-dimensional data Turning the curved lines of a globe into straight lines causes distortion of shape, size, distance, and area A straight line from east to west on a globe is best measured using a string to represent a great circle, which is an imaginary line that follows the curve of the Earth Travelling along great circle is called following a great circle route

PROJECTIONS Cartographers project the map on a flat surface to create maps, which is called a map projection The purpose of the map determines what projection is used There are three types of projections: Planar Also known as azimuthal projection, this is most accurate at its center Shows the Earth centered in a way that a straight-line coming from the center at any other point represents the shortest distance Used at the poles Cylindrical The projection of a globe onto a cylinder Most accurate near the Equator, distorted at the poles

PROJECTIONS  Conic  A cone shape is placed over the globe  Shows limited east-west areas that are not too far from the Equator  Can indicate distances and directions fairly accurately

MOST COMMON MAP PROJECTIONS Winkel Tripel Most general world maps are this type Good balance of size and shape Small amounts of distortion Robinson Minor distortions Polar areas are most distorted Sizes and shapes of eastern and western edges are accurate as well as size of continents Goode’s Interrupted Equal-Area Shows the true size of Earth’s land masses Distances are distorted Mercator Distorts size and distance as it moves away from the Equator Shows true directions and shapes of landmasses useful for travel

DETERMINING LOCATION Lines on globes and maps provide information that help you locate places Lines intersect to form a pattern called a grid system which helps you find exact places on Earth’s surface A hemisphere is one of the halves into which the Earth is divided This helps classify and describe places on Earth Latitude lines are parallel to the Earth’s Equator and measure the distance north or south of the Equator in degrees The Equator is measured at 0 degree latitude while Poles lie at latitude 90 degrees North and 90 degrees south North Latitude South Latitude Longitude, also known as meridians, circle the Earth from pole to pole Measures distance east or west of the Prime Meridian at 0 degrees longitude West longitude East longitude

DETERMINING LOCATION The 180 degree meridian on the opposite side of the Earth is called the International Date Line Absolute location names the exact place where latitude and longitude lines cross Northern Hemisphere Everything north of the Equator Southern Hemisphere Everything south of the Equator Eastern Hemisphere Everything east of the Prime Meridian for 180 degrees Western Hemisphere Everything west of the Prime Meridian for 180 degrees

USING SCALE Maps are draw to a certain scale Small-scale maps can show a large area but little detail Large-scale maps show a small area with great amount of detail Absolute and relative location

THEMATIC MAPS Qualitative maps are maps that use colors, symbols. Lines or dots to show information related to a specific idea Often used to collect historical information Flow-line maps illustrate the movement of people, animals, goods, and ideas, as well as physical processes like hurricanes and glaciers Arrows are often used to represent the flow and direction of movement

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS A GIS is designed to accept data from different sources Maps, satellite images, printed text, and statistics GIS converts the data into a digital code, which arranges it in a database Cartographers then program the GIS to process the data and produce maps. Each kind of information on a map is saved as a separate electronic layer Maps are now easier to edit and save

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