Geography Geography: the study of the earth’s physical and human characteristics. Geographers use 5 themes to explain and understand these characteristics
Location “Where is it?” Every place has: – Absolute Location: the exact spot of a place on the earth’s surface. Latitude and Longitude – Relative Location: tells where a place is by comparing what is around it. Bismarck is east of Dickinson
Place “What is it like?” Describes all of the characteristics that give an area its own special quality. Physical: mountains, waterways, climate, plant and animals Human: language, religion or architecture
Examples of Place Concrete/Physical: – Landforms – Buildings – Bridges – Trees – Statues Abstract/Human: – Climate -- Language – Culture- the way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs
Human-Environment Interaction “What is the relationship between people and their surroundings?” Landforms, waterways, climate and natural resources have either helped and harmed people and their activities.
Movement “How do people, goods, and ideas get from one place to another?” Has brought the world’s people closer together. Transportation and communication
Movement of People Population- total number of people in a given area Migration- moving from one place to another Immigrants- people who leave one country to move to another
Why do people move? “push-pull” theory- people migrate because something “pushes” them from where they currently live and “pulls” them to the new place.
Push-Pull Example Push: – Economic – Government – Religious persecution Pull – Better life – Similar people – Climate
Population Growth The world’s population has increased dramatically. – Growth rate has never been seen before. Many people move from rural areas (villages in the countryside) to urban areas (cities and towns). Causes overcrowding in areas and over use of natural resources.
Movement of Products Import- goods bought from a foreign country. Export- goods sold to a foreign country. Economy- having to do with the exchanging of money for goods and services
Region “What common features bring geographical areas together?” Can be defined by – Physical features (mts) – Religion (Islamic) – Language (French) – Livelihood (agriculture)
Examples of Regions North Dakota is in the plains, a flat land region. North Dakota has regions within the state (Red River Valley). North Dakota is a part of a region (the Midwest).
Why is Geography Important to History Geography is a key factor in shaping historical events. It helps explain why and how things happened.