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Chapter 8 Carbon Chemistry.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Carbon Chemistry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Carbon Chemistry

2 I. Section 8-1 A. Natural Forms 1. Diamond-A crystalline form of carbon where each carbon atom is strongly bonded to four other carbons. 2. Graphite-each carbon is bonded to 3 other carbons in layers. The layers have a weak attraction to each other. B. Shapes made by scientists Fulerene-Carbon atoms arranged in the shape of a hollow sphere. “Buckyball” 2. Nanotube-Carbon atoms are arranged in the shape of a a long, hollow cylinder. Light, flexible and strong, they are also good conductors of heat and electricity.

3 II. Section 8-2 A. Organic Compounds- compounds that contain Carbon. B. Hydrocarbon- compounds that contain only the elements carbon and hydrogen. C. Structural formula- shows the kind, number and arrangement of atoms in a molecule. Methane CH4

4 D. Isomer- compounds with the same chemical formula, but different structure.
E. Saturated Hydrocarbon- there are only single bonds and the maximum number of hydrogen atoms are used. (-ane) F. Unsaturated Hydrocarbon- hydrocarbons with double or triple bonds. (-ene, -yne)

5 Substituted Hydrocarbons- if one atom of another element is substituted for a hydrogen atom.
Hydroxyl group- made of an oxygen atom and a hydrogen atom. (-OH) An alcohol is produced. Methane Methanol

6 2. Organic Acid- A substituted
hydrocarbon that contains one or more carboxyl groups. (- COOH) Creates the sour taste of many fruits. 3. Ester-a compound made by combining an alcohol (-OH) and an organic acid (-COOH). Creates the fruity smell. H. Polymer- a large molecule made of a chain of many smaller molecules. I. Monomer- the smaller molecules.

7 III. Section 8-3 A. Proteins- a polymer made of monomers called amino acids. B. Amino Acid- a monomer that is the building block of proteins. C. Plastics- Synthetic polymers made from coal or oil that can be molded or shaped. D. Composite- 2 or more substances combined to form a new material with different properties. Usually includes or more polymers.

8 A. Carbohydrate-an energy-rich organic
IV. Section 8-4 A. Carbohydrate-an energy-rich organic compound made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. 1. Glucose-the most important sugar in your body. C6H12O6 B. Complex Carbohydrate-a polymer made of smaller molecules that are simple carbohydrates bonded together. (starch and cellulose) 1. Starch-complex carbs, bread, cereal, pasta, rice and potatoes. The energy released by breaking down starch allows the body to carry out its life functions. 2. Cellulose- (fiber) plant polymer Body cannot breakdown and use for energy.

9 C. Proteins- chains of amino acids which
contain a Carboxyl group (-COOH) and an Amino Group (-NH2) D. Lipids- energy-rich compounds made of C, O, and H. Fats, oils, waxes and cholesterol. Releases twice as much energy as carbohydrates. 1. Fats and Oils-each molecule contains 3 fatty acids and one alcohol called glycerol. Fats are solid, oils are liquids. 2. Cholesterol-found in animal cells. Not used for energy.

10 of the bodies fluids and blood. G. Vitamins-organic
E. Nucleic Acids-large organic molecules made up of C, H, O, N, and P. Two types of nucleic acids: DNA and RNA. 1. Nucleotides-the building blocks of nucleic acids. F. Water-makes up most of the bodies fluids and blood. G. Vitamins-organic molecules that help with chemical reactions. H. Minerals-form ions needed by the body. (calcium, iron, iodine, sodium, and potassium) I. Salts-ionic compounds found in the body.

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