2 I. Section 8-1A. Natural Forms1. Diamond-A crystalline form of carbonwhere each carbon atom is stronglybonded to four other carbons.2. Graphite-each carbon is bonded to 3 other carbons in layers. The layers have a weak attraction to each other.B. Shapes made by scientistsFulerene-Carbon atoms arranged in the shape ofa hollow sphere. “Buckyball”2. Nanotube-Carbon atoms are arranged in the shapeof a a long, hollow cylinder. Light, flexible and strong, they are also good conductors of heat and electricity.
3 II. Section 8-2A. Organic Compounds- compounds that contain Carbon.B. Hydrocarbon- compounds that contain only the elements carbon and hydrogen.C. Structural formula- shows the kind, number and arrangement of atoms in a molecule.Methane CH4
4 D. Isomer- compounds with the same chemical formula, but different structure. E. Saturated Hydrocarbon- there are only single bonds and the maximum number of hydrogen atoms are used. (-ane)F. Unsaturated Hydrocarbon- hydrocarbons with double or triple bonds. (-ene, -yne)
5 Substituted Hydrocarbons- if one atom of another element is substituted for a hydrogen atom. Hydroxyl group- made of an oxygen atom and a hydrogen atom. (-OH) An alcohol is produced.Methane Methanol
6 2. Organic Acid- A substituted hydrocarbon that contains one ormore carboxyl groups. (- COOH)Creates the sour taste of many fruits.3. Ester-a compound made by combining an alcohol (-OH) and an organic acid (-COOH). Creates the fruity smell.H. Polymer- a large molecule made ofa chain of many smaller molecules.I. Monomer- the smaller molecules.
7 III. Section 8-3A. Proteins- a polymer made ofmonomers called amino acids.B. Amino Acid- a monomer that isthe building block of proteins.C. Plastics- Synthetic polymersmade from coal or oil that can bemolded orshaped.D. Composite- 2 or more substances combined to form a new material with different properties. Usually includes or more polymers.
8 A. Carbohydrate-an energy-rich organic IV. Section 8-4A. Carbohydrate-an energy-rich organiccompound made of carbon, hydrogen andoxygen.1. Glucose-the most important sugar in yourbody. C6H12O6B. Complex Carbohydrate-a polymer made of smaller molecules that are simple carbohydrates bonded together. (starch and cellulose)1. Starch-complex carbs, bread, cereal, pasta, rice and potatoes. The energy released by breaking down starch allows the body to carry out its life functions.2. Cellulose- (fiber) plant polymer Body cannot breakdown and use for energy.
9 C. Proteins- chains of amino acids which contain a Carboxyl group (-COOH) andan Amino Group (-NH2)D. Lipids- energy-rich compounds made ofC, O, and H. Fats, oils, waxes and cholesterol. Releases twice as much energy as carbohydrates.1. Fats and Oils-each moleculecontains 3 fatty acids and onealcohol called glycerol. Fats are solid, oils are liquids.2. Cholesterol-found in animal cells. Not used for energy.
10 of the bodies fluids and blood. G. Vitamins-organic E. Nucleic Acids-large organic molecules made up of C, H, O, N, and P. Two types of nucleic acids: DNA and RNA.1. Nucleotides-the buildingblocks of nucleic acids.F. Water-makes up mostof the bodies fluids andblood.G. Vitamins-organicmolecules that help withchemical reactions.H. Minerals-form ions neededby the body. (calcium, iron,iodine, sodium, and potassium)I. Salts-ionic compounds found in the body.