2 Air exerts pressureAir molecules are constantly moving and bouncing off of surfacesEach time an air molecules bounces off an object, it pushes, or exerts a force on that objectAir pressure: the force of air molecules pushing on an areaThe greater the amount of air molecules, the greater the air pressure
3 Air pressure is related to altitude and density Air pressure and density are higher at sea level because a greater amount of air pushes down.Air pressure and density are lower at a high altitude because less air pushes down.Therefore, the air at sea level is denser than at higher altitudes.
4 Air pressure and air motion Air moves from areas of higher pressure toward areas of lower pressure.You can measure air pressure with a barometer.A Barometer’s chamber contracts when air pressure increases. It expands when air pressure decreases.
5 Uneven heating causes air to move Weather is the condition of the Earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place.Wind is air that moves horizontally (or parallel) to the ground.Differences in air pressure cause winds.
6 How winds form1. Sunlight strongly heats an area of ground. The ground heats the air. The warm air rises, and an area of low pressure forms.2. Sunlight heats an area of ground less strongly . The cooler, dense air sinks slowly, and an area of high pressure forms.Winds form from convection currentsAir moves as wind across the surface, from higher toward lower pressure.
7 Global WindsGlobal winds travel thousands of kilometers and lasts for weeks.Uneven heating between the equator and the north and south poles cause global winds.
8 Coriolis EffectThe Earth’s rotation changes the direction of winds and other objects moving over Earth. This is called the Coriolis Effect.Global winds curve as Earth turns beneath them.Winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right.Winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left.Global wind belts-The 3 routes in which global winds travel the EarthRotation of the Earth is West to East
9 Areas of calm air separate the global wind belts Calm RegionsDoldrums: Warm air rises at these low pressure zones near equator & spreads out toward the poles. Clouds & heavy rain. Fuels tropical storms.Horse Latitudes: Warm air travels away from equator then cools and sinks at these high pressure zones located about 30 degrees North and South of the equator. Clear and dry weather.Wind BeltsTrade Winds: blow from the East, moving from horse latitudes toward the equatorWesterlies: blow from the West, moving from horse latitudes toward the polesEasterlies: blow from the East, moving from the polar regions towards the mid-latitudes.
10 Jet streams flow near the top of the troposphere Usually flow from west to east for thousands of kilometersSpeeds greater than 200 km/hr or 124 miles per hourForm because of uneven heated Earth’s surfaceEach hemisphere has two jet streamsHelps make weather predictionsEffect air-travel time
11 Sea BreezesWarmer air rises over land during the day and cooler air blows in from water.
12 Land BreezesCooler air blows out from the land and warmer air rises over water at night
13 Local WindsMountain slopes heat up and cool down faster than the valleys below them, so that winds flow up the slopes during the day and down at night.Bodies of water heat up and cool down slower than land, so that winds flow inland during the day and toward the water during the nightWinds that change direction with the seasons are called Monsoonswinter monsoons originate over land and are cool and drysummer monsoons originate over water and are moist and bring heavy rains
14 Water in the atmosphere changes Evaporation: liquid water becomes a gas or vaporCondensation: vapor becomes a liquid, forms cloudsPrecipitation: liquid water flaws to surface in any form (rain, sleet, snow)
15 HumidityHumidity is the amount of water vapor in the air, varies place to place and from time to timeSaturation: condition in which the rates of evaporation and condensation are equal
16 Relative HumidityCompares the amount of water vapor in air with the maximum amount of water vapor that can be present at that temperatureExample: air with 50% relative humidity has half the amount of water needed for saturationDew point is the temperature at which air with a given amount of water vapor will reach saturation
17 Cloud typesCirrus (curl of hair) appear feathery or wispy and are high altitudecirrocumulus and cirrostratusCumulus (heap or pile) are very tall and are medium altitudeStratus (spread out) form in flat layers and are low altitudeFog is close to ground, smooth appearanceNimbo-produce precipitationAlto-medium altitude
18 PrecipitationPrecipitation is formed when water vapor droplets combine with one another. The droplets must become larger and heavier in order to fall.Scientists use a rain gauge to measure amountSnow is measured using a ruler
19 Types of Precipitation Rain and drizzle form from water droplets or ice crystals that melt as they fall to the groundFreezing rain is rain that freezes when it hits the ground or other surfacesSleet is rain that freezes into ice pellets while falling through cold airSnow forms ice crystals that merge in cloudsHail forms when ice pellets re-circulate in the clouds until they get too heavy and fall to ground
20 Pollution and Precipitation Sulfur dioxide and Nitrogen oxides enter the air as pollution and combine with water vapor to form acids.The acids mix with cloud droplets or ice crystals and fall as precipitationEffects plants, animals and water.