2 Peace Through Thinking During the Time of the Warring States, warlords and kings fight for landIn response, Chinese scholars develop three ways of thinking all with the same goal: to bring peace to ChinaConfucianismDaoismLegalismPhilosophy: A study of basic truths; ideas about the universe
3 Confucius: Teacher, Scholar, Thinker Confucius Seeks PeaceSought end to the Time of the Warring StatesPeace fundamental to all relationshipsBelieved respect preceded peace, harmonyConfucius’ ideas collected into a book: The AnalectsTogether, these teachings form the belief system of ConfucianismConfucius: Teacher, Scholar, Thinker551 – 479 BCE
4 Confucius: The Analects Knowing what he knows and knowing what he doesn’t know, are characteristics of the person who knows.Making a mistake and not correcting it, is making another mistake.The superior man blames himself; the inferior man blames others.To go too far is as wrong as to fall short.
5 The Five Relationships Confucius taught code of proper conductProper conduct in family, proper conduct in societyRuler SubjectFather SonHusband WifeOlder Brother Younger BrotherOlder Friend Younger FriendFilial Piety: Respect for your elders
6 Impact of Confucianism Confucianism set out family and social rolesFollowing these roles help Chinese to avoid conflict and live peacefullyPeople must respect authority…BUT…rulers must live right and respect the peopleSubjects have the duty to obey ruler IF the ruler lived in a right and moral wayConfucius encourages education, creating fair and skilled government officials (Bureaucracy, Civil Service)
7 Daoism (Taoism)Laozi’s ideas in Dao De Jing (The Book of the Way of Virtue)Daoists believe that a universal force, the Dao (the Way), guides all thingsAll creatures live in harmony with the Dao EXCEPT humansHumans must find their own way (Dao) to relate to nature and each otherEach person must learn to live in harmony with nature, each other, and their inner feelings
8 Following “the Way”Daoists did not argue over good and bad, or try to change thingsAccepted things as they were; did not get involved in governmentTo escape the “social, political, & cultural traps” of life, one must:1. Reject formal knowledge and learning2. Rely on the senses and instincts3. Discover the nature and “rhythm” of the universe4. Ignore political and social laws
9 Yin & YangForces of yin, yang interact, complement each other; change; evolveYin (black): Cold, Dark, MysteriousYang (white): Warm, BrightUnderstanding yin and yang help people find place in the world
10 Legalism Strong government would end the Time of the Warring States Rulers must use legal system to force people to obey lawsLegalists believe human nature is wickedAs a result, government must pass strict laws to control peoples’ behaviorHarsh punishments for those who violate law, would make people afraid to commit crimes
11 Legalist Principles Human nature is naturally selfish Intellectualism and literacy are discouragedLaw is the supreme authority and replaces moralityThe ruler must rule with a strong, punishing hand5. War is the means of strengthening a ruler’s power
12 Think About It…Based on what you know about the three Classical Chinese philosophies, who would you rather have as a teacher – a Confucianist, a Daoist, or a Legalist? Why?