Presentation on theme: "2.1 Nature of Matter Atom – atomos – “unable to cut” - basic unit of matter which consists of 3 Subatomic particles."— Presentation transcript:
2.1 Nature of Matter Atom – atomos – “unable to cut” - basic unit of matter which consists of 3 Subatomic particles.
Proton Location: in the nucleus (center) Mass: 1 atomic mass unit (amu) Charge: Positive (+1)
Neutrons Location: in the nucleus Mass: 1 amu Charge: no charge (neutral)
Electrons Location: outside of nucleus in orbitals (electron clouds, energy levels) Mass: nearly 0 amu Charge: Negative (-1)
Electron Orbit (not really) Electrons in fact inhabit regions of space known as orbitals – undefined paths. You can think of an orbital as being the region of space in which the electron lives (clouds).
Element Def – a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom. Ex - Gold
Using the Periodic Table Detailed information about elements Strategically Arranged
Periodic Table Group – elements in the same column, react in the same ways Period – elements in the same row, have similar physical properties
Chemical Symbols 6 C 12.011 1 – 2 letter chemical symbol Atomic Number Atomic Mass Atomic Number – the number of protons found in the atom Atomic Mass – the total number of neutrons and protons in the atom. (Units: amu)
Try These 11 Na 23 How many protons?11 How many neutrons?12 Element Name?Sodium 30 Zn 65.5 How many protons? How many neutrons? Element Name? 30 35 - 36 Zinc
Isotopes Def: atoms of an element that have different number of neutrons All isotopes have the same chemical properties. Why?
Radioactive Isotopes Def: isotopes that have unstable nuclei that become stable by releasing radiation –Uses of Radioactive Isotopes Determine the age of rocks because the nuclei break down at a constant rate. Treat Cancer
Compounds Def: a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions NaCl - Salt H 2 O - WaterC 6 H 12 O 6 - Glucose
Forming Chemical Compounds Ionic Bonds – a bond formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to another. –Ions: atoms of the same element that have lost or gained an electron. –2-8-8(18) Rule: Elements want to fill their outer shell by gaining or losing electrons.
Valence Electrons Valence Electrons: Electrons in the outermost shell of an atom. Ionic Bonding
Covalent Bonds Def: A chemical bond that forms when electrons are shared between atoms. Think about Hydrogen Animation Molecule: the smallest unit of most compounds.
Covalent Bonds Why does Carbon usually form covalent bonds, instead of ionic bonds? Answer – Outer shell is half full.
Van der Waals Forces Sometimes in covalent bonds the sharing of electrons is not always equal. Slight attraction between slightly charged regions of a nearby molecules. A combination of ionic and covalent bonds TED - Gecko Talk
Basic observations about water 1.Use your pipette to make droplets of water on your desk. Write down any observations you made. 2.What happens if you make one drop very near to another one? 3.Use the penny I gave you as a surface to drop water on. See how many drops of water can be held on the surface of the penny before it spills. 4.Lastly, look at the inside of the pipette after you’ve squeezed all the water out. What do you notice?