Presentation on theme: "Ch 2-3 Carbon Compounds Carbon is found in all living organisms."— Presentation transcript:
Ch 2-3 Carbon Compounds Carbon is found in all living organisms
Why is carbon necessary for life on Earth? Carbon atoms can bond with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus to form carbon or organic compounds. Carbon or organic compounds are the building blocks for organisms and the major source of their chemical energy.
CARBON COMPOUNDS = ORGANIC COMPOUNDS! How are carbon compounds related to the structure and function of organisms? Carbon compounds make up the structure of living organisms— they are the building blocks of life. Carbon compounds fuel the functions of living organisms—they provide the energy and materials for the chemical reactions that keep organisms alive.
Carbon/organic compounds are macromolecules or polymers. Polymers are formed by a process known as polymerization, where smaller molecules, monomers, join together to form larger molecules, polymers. Four groups of carbon/organic compounds are found in living organisms: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates – Structure A carbohydrate is an organic compound made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Many carbohydrate polymers have a unique ring structure. The building blocks of carbohydrates are the monomers known as monosaccharides, like glucose--C 6 H 12 O 6
Two forms of carbohydrate molecules are… monosaccharide: monomer - single sugar molecule (Ex: glucose, fructose) polysaccharide: polymer - many sugar molecules (Ex: glycogen (in animals) starch, cellulose (in plants) Polysaccharide: Glycogen A storage form of sugar in animals (mainly mammals) in the liver and muscles.
Polysaccharide: Starch A storage form of sugar in plants in food reservoirs such as seeds and bulbs. Polysaccharide: Cellulose Used for strength and rigidity in plants in the cell wall. Cellulose is an indigestible molecule, also known as fiber.
Carbohydrates – Function Living organisms use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. Extra carbs that are not used by cells are stored as fats (triglycerides). [Fats are not stored as fats; carbs are stored as fats.] Monomer sugars (monosaccharides) provide immediate energy for all cell activities. Plants also use carbohydrates (cellulose) for their cell walls (strength and rigidity)
Lipids – Structure A lipid is a polymer made up of mostly carbon and hydrogen atoms. Lipids are unique because they are nonpolar molecules, meaning they do NOT dissolve in water. Lipid polymers are chain structures. The building blocks of lipids are the monomers known as fatty acids.
Two lipid monomers are… saturated fatty acid (“full”): contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms; carbon atoms joined by single bonds http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/30/foods-saturated- fat_n_1459967.html unsaturated fatty acid (“not full”): do NOT contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms; carbon atoms joined by double bonds http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/fat/unsaturatedfat.html
Unsaturated fats Many unsaturated fats are found in vegetable products, fish, and Are LIQUID at room temperature Ex: plant oils, nuts, fish oil Saturated fats Many saturated fats are found in animal products, and Are SOLID at room temperature Ex: butter, fats in meats
Trans fats Trans fats are man-made (artificial); this is done by “hydrogenating vegetable oils” They are SOLID at room temperature Ex: many processed foods http://www.health.com/health/gallery/0,,20533295,00.html Lipids – Function The main functions of lipids are for energy storage insulation make up cell membranes protective waterproof coverings
Proteins – Structure A protein is a large complex polymer made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Protein polymers have huge complex structures. The building blocks of proteins are the monomers known as amino acids. There are 20 common amino acids used by all organisms in nature, in different combinations.
Proteins – Function The function of proteins include: control the rate of chemical reactions - enzymes regulate cell processes - hormones transport oxygen in the blood - hemoglobin help fight disease - antibodies form bone and muscle
Nucleic Acids – Structure A nucleic acid is a polymer made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus. Nucleic acid polymers vary in their size and structure—DNA is a long, double helix! The building blocks of nucleic acids are monomers known as nucleotides.
Nucleic Acids – Function The main function of nucleic acids is to store and transmit genetic (hereditary) information. There are 2 kinds: RNA (ribonucleic acid) DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)