Presentation on theme: "Ethos, Pathos, Logos. The character or reputation of a rhetor A rhetor who uses invented ethos constructs a character for herself within her discourse."— Presentation transcript:
The character or reputation of a rhetor A rhetor who uses invented ethos constructs a character for herself within her discourse. Rhetors can create a character that seems intelligent by demonstrating that they are informed about the issues they discuss and by refraining from using arguments that are irrelevant or trivial. Ethos can also be established by citing approval of their character from respected authorities. Note: The rhetor should carefully consider what readers need to know, give necessary information the readers may not know, but be careful not to repeat information the audience already knows.
Good will can be won “…if we refer to our own acts and services without arrogance; if we weaken the effect of charges that have been preferred, or of some suspicion of less honorable dealing which has been cast upon us; if we dilate on the misfortunes which have befallen us or the difficulties which still beset us; if we use prayers and entreaties with a humble and submissive spirit.” -Cicero, On Invention I xvi 22
Appeal to human emotion Sympathy and empathy are powerful persuasive techniques. Emotions : anger/calmness, love/hate, fear/confidence, shame/shameless, compassion, pity/indignation, envy/emulation, joy, and hope…. Emotions are not the same as appetites, such as pleasure and pain, or values, such as justice and goodness. Emotional appeals are based on the assumption that humans share similar kinds of emotional responses to events.
Logical or rational proofs that can be found by examining the issues Refers to arguments found in the issue itself These arguments can be based on laws or commonplaces, beliefs widely accepted by the relevant community. (Ex. Murderers should be punished.)
Deductive reasoning is “a discussion in which, certain things having been laid down, something other than these things necessarily results through them.” Aristotle, Topics I For example: 1. All people are mortal (general) 2. Socrates is a person (specific) 3. Therefore, Socrates is mortal (Major premise, minor premise, and conclusion)
Inductive reasoning reasons in the opposite direction of deductive reasoning Aristotle defines it as “the progress from particulars to universals.” Example: Socrates is mortal (because) Socrates is a person (therefore) People are mortal