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Hitler Establishes a Dictatorship http://bookworm-megs.blogspot.com/2009/04/april-blogging-day-two.html
http://www.oddee.com/_media/imgs/articles/a55_longlive.jpg 30 January 1933 Hitler - appointed Chancellor However, the Nazis did not have a majority in Reichstag
REICHSTAG ELECTION NOVEMBER 6 1932 Partyvote% Nazi11,737,000 33.1 Social Democratic7,248,0002.4 Communist5,980,00016.9 Center 4,231,00011.9 Nationalist2,959,0008.8 Bavarian People's1,095,0003.1 Other parties2,635,0007.6
REICHSTAG ELECTIONMARCH 1933 Partyvote% Nazi17,277,00043.9 Social Democratic7,182,00018.3 Communist4,848,00012.3 Center4,425,00011.7 Nationalist 3,137,0008.0 Bavarian People's1,074,0002.7 Other parties1,533,0003.8 http://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/germany/elect.htm
Reichstag Fire A Communist was arrested for the crime Gave Hitler an ideal excuse to arrest & persecute leading Communists + break their organization Communists were outlawed February 27, 1933 Reichstag burned down
Two weeks after the Reichstag fire, Hitler requested the Reichstag to temporarily delegate its powers to him so that he could adequately deal with the crisis. the vote was taken, the result was 441 for and 84 against, giving Hitler the two- thirds majority he needed to suspend the German constitution.
Enabling Acts March 23, 1933 Gave Hitler the power to make laws without parliament’s approval for four years Made Hitler a dictator
Bill acquired 2/3 majority with only the Socialist voting against it May 2, 1933 trade unions abolished and leaders are arrested By July 14 – all political parties are banned only the NAZI party left The SA (Storm troopers or Brown Shirts) intimidated all non-Nazi members of the Reichstag
SS (Blackshirts) A German police/ military style organization created to serve as the personal bodyguards of Adolf Hitler they eventually controlled the intelligence, security and police forces, and extermination of those they considered undesirable.
GESTAPO Secret State Police Gestapo (secret state police) were given the job of identifying & bringing to justice opponents of the Nazis (included: Communists, Socialists, Jews, homosexuals, gypsies) All important offices (judges, chiefs of police) were held by Nazis
Heydrich led the Gestapo ‘Henchman Heydrich’ Gestapo could arrest anyone on suspicion and taken into ‘protective custody’ (imprisonment without trial)
Himmler controlled the SS + the regular police (and was Heydrich’s superior) Hitler encouraged rivalry between the two – so he would not be challenged
Night of the Long Knives June 30, 1934 some SA (Brownshirts/Nazi Storm troopers, formed in 1921 to protect the party) leaders were demanding that the Nazi party carry out its socialist agenda National Socialist German Workers’ Party Hitler had only used the word Socialist to get support from workers as he hated socialism Two points of the party’s original plan were – Profit sharing in the great industries – Abolition of all incomes unearned by work
SS murdered 400 of the SA (Brownshirts) members, including its leader Ernst Roehm and along with a number of Hitler's other opponents Roehm wanted nationalization of major firms but Hitler could not afford to annoy ‘big business’ who supported the Nazi party Roehm wanted the SA (2 million men) to replace the professional army (200,000 men) but Hitler could not afford to annoy the generals
British cartoon by David Low, 1934 They salute with both hands, now!
Fuhrer Oath of Army Loyalty President Hindenburg died in 1934; Hitler abolished the titles of Chancellor & President and made himself Fuhrer or leader Night of the Long Knives had impressed the army; when Hitler became Fuhrer, the army swore an oath of personal loyalty to the Fuhrer As the Fuhrer, Hitler was in complete control
First published by Daily Express on 13 March 1933 http://opal.kent.ac.uk/cartoonx-cgi/ccc.py?mode=single&start=14&search=hitler
The Fuhrer Oath I swear by almighty God this sacred oath: I will render unconditional obedience to the Fuehrer of the German Reich and people, Adolf Hitler, Supreme Commander of the Wehrmacht, and, as a brave soldier, I will be ready at any time to stake my life for this oath."
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