# Forms and Types of Energy Energy: The property of an object that allows it to produce change in the environment or in itself. (The ABILITY to do WORK)

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Forms and Types of Energy

Energy: The property of an object that allows it to produce change in the environment or in itself. (The ABILITY to do WORK)

I. KINETIC ENERGY (movement): 1) Electrical 2) Electromagnetic (EM) 3) Thermal (Heat) 4) Mechanical II. POTENTIAL ENERGY (stored): 1) Chemical 2) Gravitational PE 3) Elastic PE 4) Nuclear

The energy of motion is called kinetic energy. The faster an object moves, or the greater the mass of a moving object, the more kinetic energy it has. Kinetic energy depends on both mass and velocity.

K.E. = mass x velocity 2 2 =.5mv 2 What has a greater effect on kinetic energy, mass or velocity? Why?

This is the energy of electricity. CurrentStatic Current is the flow of electrons through a wire. Lightning is static electricity.

Electromagnetic (EM) Energy Also called Radiant Energy These waves are produced when an electric charge vibrates or accelerates Consist of changing electric and magnetic fields

EM energy travels as waves and can cross the vacuum of space. Each color of light (ROYGBIV) represents a different amount of energy. EM Includes radio waves, UV, microwaves, light, X-Rays, and gamma rays.

Electromagnetic Energy EM waves are responsible for carrying energy from the sun to the earth through the vacuum of space Low E High E

The internal motion of the atoms is called heat energy, because moving particles produce heat. As an object heats up, the particles move faster. Heat energy can be produced by friction. Heat energy causes changes in temperature and phase of any form of matter.

o Heat energy o The heat energy of an object determines how active its atoms are. A hot object is one whose atoms and molecules are excited and show rapid movement. A cooler object's molecules and atoms will show less movement.

When work is done to an object, it acquires energy. The energy it acquires is known as mechanical energy. Mechanical Energy is the energy in moving things: Machinery People walking Waterfalls

o Energy due to a object’s motion (kinetic) or position (potential). The bowling ball has mechanical energy. When the ball strikes the pins, mechanical energy is transferred to the pins!

Potential Energy is stored energy: Stored chemically in fuel, the nucleus of atom, and in foods. Or stored because of the work done on it: Stretching a rubber band. Winding a watch. Pulling back on a bow’s arrow. Lifting a brick high in the air.

Chemical Energy bonds atoms together. When bonds between atoms or molecules are broken, energy is released. Food, fuel and batteries all have chemical energy.

The chemical bonds in a matchstick store energy that is transformed into thermal energy when the match is struck.

Potential energy that is dependent on height is called gravitational potential energy. The formula to find G.P.E. is G.P.E. = Weight X Height.

A waterfall, a suspension bridge, and a falling snowflake all have gravitational potential energy.

Energy that is stored due to being stretched or compressed is called elastic potential energy.

The nucleus of an atom contains nuclear energy. When the nucleus splits (fission), nuclear energy is released in the form of heat and light energy. Nuclear energy is also released when nuclei collide at high speeds and join (fusion).

Nuclear energy is the most concentrated form of energy. The WI lakeshore was the home of the Two Creeks and Kewaunee nuclear power plants, which converted heat to steam to generate electricity

The sun’s nuclear fusion reaction fuses hydrogen nuclei into helium nuclei and give off huge amounts of energy.

The energy in a closed, isolated system is constant. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another.

Mechanical and Thermal Energy (Don’t forget friction)

Tghink how to show the flow of energy transformations in a car from starting vehicle to driving. You should have 5 different types of energy.

Chemical Electrical Sound (mechanical) Light (Electromagnetic) Thermal Mechanical

These six types of energy can change, or be transformed, from one type to another. Describe (not list) one energy transformation that you see in the (slightly gruesome) video clip. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MIqSg4JSJt8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MIqSg4JSJt8

What will happen when one ball is released? What will happen when two balls are released? What will happen when 3 balls are released? What will happen when 1 ball from each side is released at the same time? According to the Law of Conservation of Energy, energy cannot be created or destroyed only converted form one form to another. So why does a Newton’s cradle stop? Where did the energy go?