Presentation on theme: "Matter – Properties and Changes Chapter 3. 3.1 – Properties of Matter Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space (mass is the amount of matter."— Presentation transcript:
3.1 – Properties of Matter Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space (mass is the amount of matter the object contains). What’s the difference between mass and weight? Substances are matter that have uniform and unchanging composition. What is an example of a substance?
States of Matter What are the three states of matter? Solid – Form of matter that has its own definite shape and volume. definite shape and volume, incompressible Liquid – Form of matter that flows, has constant volume, and takes the shape of its container. indefinite shape, definite volume, incompressible Gas – Form of matter that not only flows to conform to the shape of its container but also fills the entire volume of its container. indefinite shape and volume, compressible What is the difference between a gas and vapor? Vapor refers to the gaseous state of a substance that is a solid or a liquid at room temperature.
Physical Properties of Matter A physical property is a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the substance’s composition. Extensive – dependent on the amount of substance present. (such as mass) Intensive – independent of the amount of substance present. (such as density) Name more examples of physical properties.
Chemical Properties of Matter A chemical property has the ability or inability to combine with or change a substance into one or more other substances. What is an example of a chemical property?
3.2 – Changes in Matter What are the two types of changes matter can undergo? Physical Change – alters a substance without changing its composition. Phase Change – Transition of matter from one state to another. Water Cycle – boil, freeze, condense, vaporize, melt Chemical Change – process that involves one or more substances changing into new substances. What are some examples of evidence of a chemical change?
Conservation of Mass The law of conservation of mass states that in any physical change or chemical reaction, mass is neither created nor destroyed; it is conserved. Mass reactants = Mass products Law of Spontaneous generation
3.3 – Mixtures of Matter A mixture is a physical blend of two or more substances in which each substance retains its individual chemical properties. What is the difference between heterogenous and homogenous mixtures? Heterogeneous mixture – mixture that does not blend smoothly throughout and in which the individual substances remain distinct. Homogenous mixture – mixture that has constant composition throughout; it always has a single phase. How many phases does a solution have? Solutions = homogeneous mixtures
Separating Mixtures What are six methods of separating mixtures? Filtration Technique that uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid. Distillation Physical separation technique that is based on differences in the boiling points of the substances involved. Crystallization Separation technique that results in the formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a solution containing the dissolved substance.
Separating Mixtures Sublimation Process during which a solid changes to vapor without melting. Chromatography Technique that separates the components of a mixture dissolved in either a gas or a liquid based on the ability of each component to travel or to be drawn across the surface of a fixed substrate. Magnets Technique that separates the components of a mixture based on the magnetic properties of the components. How would you separate a mixture of sand, salt, iron filings, and water?
3.4 - Elements and Compounds Elements are pure substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means. The periodic table organizes the elements into a grid of horizontal rows (periods) and vertical columns (groups or families). Compounds are substances made up of two or more different elements that are combined chemically. What are “chemical means” of separating compounds?
Mass Number Adds the total number of protons and neutrons together. MASS NUMBER DOES NOT EQUAL ATOMIC MASS!!!!!!!!! Mass number is not on the periodic table.
Law of Definite Proportions masses of the same elements are always in the same proportions in any chemical compound some compounds contain the same elements but have different physical/chemical properties Sucrose = 42.2% Carbon, 6.5% Hydrogen, 51.3% Oxygen % by mass = Mass of element x 100 Mass of compound
Law of Multiple Proportions When different compounds are formed by a combination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same fixed mass of the other element in a ratio of small whole numbers. compares two different compounds containing the same elements Water (H 2 O) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )