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The U.S. Constitution Test on Tuesday, November 4, 2014
What is a constitution? A plan of government that describes the different parts of the government and their duties and powers. United States Constitution Written in the summer of 1787 in Philadelphia Became the law in 1788 Remains in effect today
The Articles of Confederation (pages 134-137) the first attempt to write a constitution for the U.S. drafted or written in 1776 created two levels of government to share power: 1.national government (also the federal government) 2.state government Weaknesses: 1. 2. Articles of Confederation will be replaced by the U.S. Constitution.
NATIONAL GOVERNMENT STATE GOVERNMENTS BOTH CONCURRENT POWERS RESERVED POWERS DELEGATED POWERS - COLLECT TAXES -BUILD ROADS - -MAKE LAWS Federalism page 143 -PROVIDE SCHOOLS -- CONDUCT ELECTIONS - DECLARE WAR - PRINT MONEY - REGULATE BANKS
United States Constitution page 154 Three Parts- Preamble, Articles, Amendments 1. Preamble a. states the purpose of the Constitution b. begins with three words- We the People c. lists six goals of the Constitution 1. form a more perfect union 2. establish justice 3. insure domestic tranquility 4. provide for the common defense 5. promote the general welfare 6. secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity
2. Articles a. There are ____ articles in the Constitution. b. describe the organization of the government c. include what the three branches of government are and do, how they interact with each other and how the federal and state governments split their duties
3. Amendments a. changes or additions to the Constitution b. How many are there? __27__ c. How is an amendment added or ratified? 2/3 of the members of each house of Congress and 3/4 of the state legislatures d. Bill of Rights They are the first _10__ amendments. They describe the rights of the people. They were added in the year 1791
Three Branches of Government page 143 1. Legislative branch- makes the laws includes the two houses of Congress a. the House of Representatives b. the Senate 2. Executive Branch- enforces or carries out the laws includes the President, Vice-President and the Cabinet 3. Judicial Branch- interprets the laws includes the Supreme Court and U. S. courts
Compromises page 142 Describe each one: 1.Great Compromise- Big states want more votes; little states want to be equal. Two houses of Congress are created. 2.3/5 Compromise- Slaves will count as 3/5 of a person when counting the population. 3.slave trade compromise- Congress will make no laws about the slave trade for 20 years.
PRIMARY AUTHOR OF THE CONSTITUTION IS JAMES MADISON
Legislative Branch (pages 154-155) Name of the two housesHouse of Representatives Senate Total number of members Number of members from each state Requirements Length of term Number of times possible to be elected Presiding officer/leader Portion elected every two years
Congress, the legislative branch 1.How often does Congress have to meet? (Article 1, Section 4) at least once a year 2.How many total members of Congress are there? 535 (435 representatives + 100 senators)
Powers pages 158-159 1.What is the “elastic clause”? Congress has the power to make all other laws that are “necessary and proper”. The powers of Congress are expanded to cover any situation. 2.What powers does Congress have? To collect taxes To borrow money To declare war To impeach and hold a trial (page 155) To create new states (page 164)
Limits page 159 What limits were on the national government? Cannot ban the slave trade before 1808 Cannot suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus except in emergencies Cannot pass any bills of attainder Cannot pass any ex post facto laws Cannot take money from the treasury without a law Cannot grant titles of nobility Cannot require public officials to hold any particular religious beliefs; cannot make laws to set up a religion
Article I, Section 9 page 159 Define: 1)habeas corpus 2)bill of attainder 3)ex post facto law 4)treason- the only crime mentioned in the Constitution. What is it? (Article 3, Section 3)
Executive Branch pages 160-162 Who is the executive branch headed by? the president Length of term Number of times possible to be elected Maximum number of years possible in office Requirements Name for advisors Date term begins- Inauguration Day
Powers and Duties of the President page 161-162 Enforces or executes laws Is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces Grants pardons and reprieves Makes treaties (with the Senate) Appoints many officials (e.g. federal judges, ambassadors) Informs Congress about the State of the Union Prepares the budget of the nation Is the legislative leader of the majority party (e.g. power to sign or veto laws)
Executive Branch questions 1. In case of an emergency, who would be the new president? List 5 people. 2. What is a lame duck? (page 171) 3. What is impeachment? 4. Who has the power to impeach? (page 154) 5. Who holds the trial? (page 155) 6. Which two presidents have been impeached? (page 162) 7. Which presidents have been removed from office after impeachment? 8. What is the head of each state called?
Elections page 144 The Electoral College elects the president and vice- president. Each state has a number of electors. The number of electors = the number of senators + the number of representatives. ALL electoral votes from each state goes to one candidate. If there is no majority of electoral votes, the House of Representatives elects the president.
Judicial Branch pages 162-163 How many justices are on the Supreme Court? What is the length of a term? What are the requirements? Who nominates the justices? Who approves the justices?
Judicial Branch page 37 What is judicial review? the power of the Supreme Court to determine the constitutionality of a law or treaty
Checks and Balances (page 143) The system that balances the three branches of government, so no one person or group is able to dominate the others. Examples of checks: 1.on the judicial branch- the president appoints the federal judges and Senate approves them. Congress can also impeach them. 2.on the legislative branch- the president can veto laws. 3.on the executive branch- Congress can impeach the president. 4.on the executive and legislative branches- judicial review
PRIMARY AUTHOR OF THE CONSTITUTION IS JAMES MADISON
Amendments page 166-173 or handout Which one is the only one to be repealed? Which one contains the five freedoms? What did the 17th amendment do? Which one ensured women’s suffrage? Which one grants all citizens due process and equal protection under the law?