Presentation on theme: "Warm up (Engage) -Make a “T” chart and write “Break” on left side And “Build/assemble” on the right side. Using the pictures below identify which one breaks."— Presentation transcript:
Warm up (Engage) -Make a “T” chart and write “Break” on left side And “Build/assemble” on the right side. Using the pictures below identify which one breaks things and which ones build or assemble. Scissors Glue Tape Chain Saw Stapler Knife
How does it happen? Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) Liver= host many enzymes such as Catalase Catalase turns H 2 O 2 into… H 2 O 2 + Catalase (in liver) = H 2 0 +O 2 What is H20? What is 02? So where is bubbling coming from?
Enzymes Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts. The function of a catalysts is to speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells. Enzymes act by lowering the activation energies in a chemical reaction.
ENZYMES Proteins that regulate chemical reactions (ex. digestion). Catalyst-speeds up chemical reaction but is not consumed in the reaction. Enzymes are very specific to who they attach: Works like a lock and key: – Substrate – Active site
How do enzymes work? The Enzyme-Substrate Complex – Enzymes provide a site where reactants can be brought together to react (active sites). – The reactants that binds to the active site is called substrates.
Enzymes Enzymes can break apart a chemical molecule. OR Put them together.
Chemically this is what enzymes do… Catalyst-speeds up chemical reaction but is not consumed in the reaction. – They Kick off the chemical reaction by Lowering the Activation energy. Activation energy: The energy required to complete a reaction.
Reaction pathway without enzyme Activation energy without enzyme Activation energy with enzyme Reaction pathway with enzyme Reactants Products A B
Shape matters! Enzymes are proteins that have an active site some where on the molecule where others molecules can land and react. Pretizel http://today.slac.stanford.edu/images/2010/algae-enzyme.jpg Active site
Think of enzyme as Pac man http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_Q8OAp1ni8ys/S_d18_SKKkI/AAAAAAAAAHg/973QvIZGTY E/s1600/pacman.PNG
EXIT TICKET 1.Enzymes belong to which biomolecule? 2.What does a catalysts do to a chemical reaction? 3.T/F Any substrate can bind to the active site of an enzyme. 4.T/F Enzymes can only break apart a substrate. 5.T/F All proteins are enzymes.
20 What Affects Enzyme Activity? Three factors: Three factors: 1.Environmental Conditions 2.Cofactors and Coenzymes 3.Enzyme Inhibitors
21 1. Environmental Conditions 1. Extreme Temperature are the most dangerous - high temps denature (unfold) enzyme. - high temps may denature (unfold) the enzyme. 2.pH (most like 6 - 8 pH near neutral) 3.Ionic concentration (salt ions)
22 2. Cofactors and Coenzymes Inorganic substances (zinc, iron) vitamins enzymatic activity Inorganic substances (zinc, iron) and vitamins (respectively) are sometimes need for proper enzymatic activity. Example: Example: Ironquaternary structure-hemoglobin pick up oxygen. Iron must be present in the quaternary structure - hemoglobin in order for it to pick up oxygen.
23 Two examples of Enzyme Inhibitors a. Competitive inhibitors: resembleenzyme’s normal substrate compete active site a. Competitive inhibitors: are chemicals that resemble an enzyme’s normal substrate and compete with it for the active site. Enzyme Competitive inhibitor Substrate
24 Inhibitors b.Noncompetitive inhibitors: do not enter the active sitebind to another part enzymeenzymechange its shapealters the active site Inhibitors that do not enter the active site, but bind to another part of the enzyme causing the enzyme to change its shape, which in turn alters the active site. Enzyme active site altered Noncompetitive Inhibitor Substrate