Presentation on theme: "The surrounding air of the Earth"— Presentation transcript:
1 The surrounding air of the Earth AtmosphereThe surrounding air of the Earth
2 Layers of the atmosphere There are 4 layers in the atmosphereThey are the troposphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and stratosphere
3 TroposphereThis is the layer that is closest to the surface of the earthIt’s elevation ranges from 0 to 10 km
4 Stratosphere This 2nd layer sits on top of the troposphere It’s elevation ranges from 10 km to around 25 kmThis layer contains the ozone layer, which protects us from harmful sunlight
5 Mesosphere This 3rd layer is above the stratosphere It’s elevation ranges from 25 to 100 km
6 Thermosphere This is the highest layer of the atmosphere It’s height ranges from 100 to 400 kmThis is where most small meteorites burn up and is also the location in the atmosphere that the northern lights occur (aurora borealis)
7 Composition of AirThere are many different types of gasses in the atmosphereThey include nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide and other noble gassesThe gas that is most abundant is nitrogen
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9 Air PressureThe measure of the force that the air molecules push on a surfaceAir pressure “pushes” an object in all directionsAs altitude increase, air pressure decreases
10 Altitude The height of an object above Earth’s surface The greater the altitude, the less amount of air pressure
11 OzoneLocated in the stratosphere, is a molecule made up of 3 oxygen atoms that absorb solar energy in the form of ultra-violet (UV) radiation warming the surrounding air
12 Radiation- the transfer of energy through empty space Energy from the Sun heating the Earth’s surfaceTakes place when there is NO direct contact between surfaces
13 Conduction- heat transfer by direct contact of particles of matter Example: a metal spoon sitting in a hot bowl of soupHeat will ALWAYS travel from the warmest object to the coolest object!
14 Convection- heat transfer involving the movement of fluids-liquids & gases from one particle to anotherCaused by different temperatures & densities within the fluidHeat rises & cold sinks
15 Greenhouse effect- a heating process on Earth where the gases in the atmosphere (ozone layer) trap thermal energy keeping the troposphere at a livable temperature.50% of the radiation that enters the Earth’s atmosphere is absorbed by the Earth’s surface
16 Global warming- the gradual warming up of Earth’s atmosphere Contributes to the depletion of the ozone layerCaused by human activity mostlyBurning of fossil fuels, deforestation, CFC’s, ect.
17 Wind- A flow or current of directionally moving air Due to the Earth’s counterclockwise rotation, the Northern Hemispheres wind patterns typically blow from the west to the eastCan be either a warm or cold wind patternOcean current mimic wind patterns
18 Coriolis Effect- The curved path that the rotation of the Earth causes the wind to travel in Winds in the Northern Hemisphere travel to the right & in the Southern Hemisphere they travel to the left
19 Trade winds- Winds that blow from 30 degrees latitude to the equator They are in both hemispheresHave been used by sailors for hundreds of years
20 DoldrumsWhere the northern & southern hemisphere trade winds meet in an area of low pressureVery little wind; means “foolish” in LatinHorse LatitudesArea of weak winds at 30 degrees north & 30 degrees south latitudeLegend states that sailors would throw horses over the sides of their boats to make the boat lighter to sail
21 Westerlies- wind belts found in both the Northern & the Southern hemispheres between 30 degrees and 60 degrees latitudeFlow toward the poles in the opposite direction of the trade windsHelped early traders return to Europe
22 Polar easterlies- wind belts that extend from the poles to 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres; Form from cold sinking air
23 Jet streams- narrow belt of high-speed winds that blow in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere; do NOT follow a regular path around Earthchanges speeds often and can exceed 500 km/hrWind that blows the weather systems across the land