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The surrounding air of the Earth

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Presentation on theme: "The surrounding air of the Earth"— Presentation transcript:

1 The surrounding air of the Earth
Atmosphere The surrounding air of the Earth

2 Layers of the atmosphere
There are 4 layers in the atmosphere They are the troposphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and stratosphere

3 Troposphere This is the layer that is closest to the surface of the earth It’s elevation ranges from 0 to 10 km

4 Stratosphere This 2nd layer sits on top of the troposphere
It’s elevation ranges from 10 km to around 25 km This layer contains the ozone layer, which protects us from harmful sunlight

5 Mesosphere This 3rd layer is above the stratosphere
It’s elevation ranges from 25 to 100 km

6 Thermosphere This is the highest layer of the atmosphere
It’s height ranges from 100 to 400 km This is where most small meteorites burn up and is also the location in the atmosphere that the northern lights occur (aurora borealis)

7 Composition of Air There are many different types of gasses in the atmosphere They include nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide and other noble gasses The gas that is most abundant is nitrogen

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9 Air Pressure The measure of the force that the air molecules push on a surface Air pressure “pushes” an object in all directions As altitude increase, air pressure decreases

10 Altitude The height of an object above Earth’s surface
The greater the altitude, the less amount of air pressure

11 Ozone Located in the stratosphere, is a molecule made up of 3 oxygen atoms that absorb solar energy in the form of ultra-violet (UV) radiation warming the surrounding air

12 Radiation- the transfer of energy through empty space
Energy from the Sun heating the Earth’s surface Takes place when there is NO direct contact between surfaces

13 Conduction- heat transfer by direct contact of particles of matter
Example: a metal spoon sitting in a hot bowl of soup Heat will ALWAYS travel from the warmest object to the coolest object!

14 Convection- heat transfer involving the movement of fluids-liquids & gases from one particle to another Caused by different temperatures & densities within the fluid Heat rises & cold sinks

15 Greenhouse effect- a heating process on Earth where the gases in the atmosphere (ozone layer) trap thermal energy keeping the troposphere at a livable temperature. 50% of the radiation that enters the Earth’s atmosphere is absorbed by the Earth’s surface

16 Global warming- the gradual warming up of Earth’s atmosphere
Contributes to the depletion of the ozone layer Caused by human activity mostly Burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, CFC’s, ect.

17 Wind- A flow or current of directionally moving air
Due to the Earth’s counterclockwise rotation, the Northern Hemispheres wind patterns typically blow from the west to the east Can be either a warm or cold wind pattern Ocean current mimic wind patterns

18 Coriolis Effect- The curved path that the rotation of the Earth causes the wind to travel in
Winds in the Northern Hemisphere travel to the right & in the Southern Hemisphere they travel to the left

19 Trade winds- Winds that blow from 30 degrees latitude to the equator
They are in both hemispheres Have been used by sailors for hundreds of years

20 Doldrums Where the northern & southern hemisphere trade winds meet in an area of low pressure Very little wind; means “foolish” in Latin Horse Latitudes Area of weak winds at 30 degrees north & 30 degrees south latitude Legend states that sailors would throw horses over the sides of their boats to make the boat lighter to sail

21 Westerlies- wind belts found in both the Northern & the Southern hemispheres between 30 degrees and 60 degrees latitude Flow toward the poles in the opposite direction of the trade winds Helped early traders return to Europe

22 Polar easterlies- wind belts that extend from the poles to 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres; Form from cold sinking air

23 Jet streams- narrow belt of high-speed winds that blow in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere; do NOT follow a regular path around Earth changes speeds often and can exceed 500 km/hr Wind that blows the weather systems across the land

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