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Micro Organisms in the Ocean. Homework Read p 86-88 What are the most important primary producers in many marine environments? What is the difference.

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Presentation on theme: "Micro Organisms in the Ocean. Homework Read p 86-88 What are the most important primary producers in many marine environments? What is the difference."— Presentation transcript:

1 Micro Organisms in the Ocean

2 Homework Read p 86-88 What are the most important primary producers in many marine environments? What is the difference between Archaea and Bacteria Define detitrus What is cyanobateria and what is its connection to stromatolites What is endolithtic bacteria and where is it found?

3 Homework Read p 89- 95 1. What two types of compounds can a chemoautotroph get energy from? 2. What is the formula for nitrite oxidation? 3.What does anoxic mean? 4. What is a frustule? What is it made of? 5. What are two examples of biogenous sediment?

4 Homework Read p5-12 – 5-15 Answer Study Questions 1-4 on 5-12

5 In this section we will learn about the various forms of life found in the ocean Including: Microorganisms Plants Various type of Animals which we will discuss according to their classification (Phylum)

6 Microorganisms We will cover those organisms only visable with the aid of a microscope We will break it down into four groups: Prokaryotes Eubacteria & Archeabacteria Eukaryotic Unicellular Algae -Diatoms, Dinoflagellates Protozoan Fungi

7 The First Forms of Life Next time you see a bacteria thank it, for without these early forms of life, we would not have life as we know it today. Thank You

8 Prokaryotes

9 Cyanobacteria Used to be called “blue green algae”, but not an algae, a bacterium –Prokaryotic cells (algae eukaryotic) –Completely different cell wall But - similar to algae in pigments (chlorophyll a, phycobilins) And – one of earliest photo synthesizers on Earth - and actually MADE Oxygen

10 Lyngbya majuscula Cyanobacteria, not algae

11 Stromatolites - cyanobacterial mats take calcium from seawater, deposit in sedimentary layers Early “reef” building events These were formed over millions of years

12 Before free oxygen – There was no ozone layer. Early organisms were restricted to the seas for protection from UV radiation Cyanobacteria creates O 2 which moves into the upper atmosphere to create O 3 (Ozone)—Now life can migrate to land

13 A cyanobacteria bloom

14 Spirulina sp.

15 Oscillatoria sp. Cyanobacteria Planktonic – floats in the ocean with the current. Nitrogen fixation changes ammonia and nitrites into nitrates

16 Synechococcus sp. Unicell Planktonic cyanobacteria Nitrogen fixation

17 Prochloron Very similar to chloroplast structure Acc. to endosymbiotic theory, bacterial cells similar to Prochloron resisted digestion, became symbiotic, now = “chloroplasts”


19 Archaea Methanogens use methane as an energy source Extreme thermophiles – live in extreme temperatures. Thermal vents and hot springs Extreme halophiles – live in extremely saline conditions

20 Chemosynthetic bacteria are symbionts in giant tube worms at hydrothermal vents

21 Other helpful Bacteria Nitrifying bacteria as we have discussed before. Ammonia Nitrites Nitrates Resident in our fish tanks

22 Bacteria which live in extreme conditions classified as 1.Eubacteria 2.Archeabacteria 3.Eukaryotes

23 Archeabacteria and Eubacteria are 1.Prokaryotes 2.Eukaryotes 3.Viruses 4.None of the Above

24 Cyanobacteria was the first 1.Oxygen producer 2.Form of Life 3.Methane producer 4.Land animal

25 The conversion of Ammonia to Nitrites and then to Nitrates is known as 1.Nitrogen Narcosis 2.The Bends 3.Nitrogen Fixation 4.None of the Above

26 Structures which are the result of cyanobacterial mats depositing layers of calcium from seawater are called 1.Reefs 2.Stromatolites 3.Magnesium Nodules 4.Guyots



29 Diatoms = #’s 1-6Dinoflagellates = #’s 7-10 Coccolithophore = #11 Unicellular Algae

30 Diatoms have a silica shell

31 Diatom cellular structure

32 Form and Structure Centrate – a circular or round form Pennate – oblong form Raphe = groove that allows movement via contractile fibers Two part hat box design of the Frustrule Silica test (shell) – glass like allows for light to penetrate for photosynthesis

33 Unicellular Algae is part of the Domain 1.Archaebacteria 2.Eubacteria 3.Eukaryotes 4.Prokaryotes

34 Diatoms have a Hatbox design known as a 1.Turnstile 2.Boxstule 3.Frustule 4.Silictile

35 Diatoms have a Silicate Test to allow _____ pass through 1.Water 2.Oxygen 3.Glucose 4.Light

36 The outer “shell” of a Diatom is referred to as a 1.Skeleton 2.Test 3.Armor plate 4.Skin

37 Centrate diatom Order Centrales

38 Pennate diatom Order Pennales - Note raphe (groove)

39 Order Pennales - Pennate Diatom

40 Other types of diatoms

41 Pseudo-nitzschia sp. Parsons’ pic from Hilo Bay below

42 Dinoflagellates Phylum Dinoflagellata or Pyrrophyta Sulcus (groove) – their version of the Raphe. Also for movement with the use of a flagella Cellulose “armor” is not see through 2 flagella – placement determines class Can be Heterotrophs, Autotrophs or Both

43 The sulcus is where you would find the 1.Flagella 2.Cilia 3.Arms 4.Mouth

44 The Flagella is primarily used for 1.Attracting Mates 2.Attracting Prey 3.Movement 4.None of the Above

45 Dinoflagellates are 1.Autotrophic 2.Heterotrophic 3.Both 4.Neither


47 Gonyaulax grindleyi SULCUS


49 Dinoflagellate importance Red tides – blooms will close beaches Ciguatera – causes sickness in humans due to their ingestion of large reef fish Bioluminescence in water Zooxanthellae – reef builders Pfisteria – Can switch between autotroph and heterotroph. Releases neurotoxins.


51 Red Tide

52 Biomagnification Toxin from microorganisms is concentrated up the food chain Large predators can die –Ciguatera from dinoflagellates –Paralytic shellfish poisoning from dinoflagellates



55 Gambierdiscus toxicus - ciguatera

56 Ciguatera around the Big Island Causes many GI problems. Hot/Cold reversal Can be transmitted to others No effective treatment Symptoms can last weeks to years (in extreme cases) Caused by eating top level predator reef fish.

57 Pfiesteria piscicida Can morph from Autotrophic to Heterotropic based on need. HIGHLY TOXIC even at low levels

58 Dinoflagellates Noctiluca Bioluminescent- Glows in water thanks to Luciferase

59 If you eat a top level predator reef fish you are in danger of getting 1.The Flu 2.Ciguatera 3.Red Tide 4.Melanoma

60 A Red Tide is a result of a biological bloom of 1.Cyanobacteria 2.Dinoflagellates 3.Pfisteria

61 Coccolithophores Unicellular algae Calcium carbonate test Circular in structure


63 Bioluminescence cannot occur in microorganisms because they are too small 1.True 2.False

64 Coccolithophores are _______ in shape 1.Varied 2.Round 3.Oblong 4.Centrate


66 Protozoans Animal-like unicellular organisms eat microalgae and bacteria Foraminiferans Radiolarians Ciliates

67 Foraminiferans Amoeba shape with pseudopodia that stick out of spiral “shell” arrangement to catch food Calcium carbonate test Like it warm – info about past climate chalk, White Cliffs of Dover, calcareous ooze

68 Foraminiferans

69 The White Cliffs of Dover Layer upon layer of sediment. calcareous ooze. The remains of Foraminiferans building up over millions of years The English Coast

70 Radiolarians Silica tests Spherical shells with radiating spines Can live in cold water siliceous ooze Pseudopodia- “false foot” for locomotion and getting prey.

71 Radiolarians

72 Ciliates hair-like cilia used in locomotion and feeding Important in microbial loop as bacteria eaters

73 Paramecium

74 Ciliates

75 Acanthostomella norvegica - a tintinnid ciliate Big eaters of primary producers


77 Psuedopodia means 1.False arms 2.False Body 3.False Foot 4.Calcium

78 Radiolarians have a _________ test 1.Cellulose 2.Silicate 3.Calcuim Carbonate 4.None of the above

79 Fungi Eukaryotes Heterotrophic Reproduction through Spores Cell wall of chitin Single or multicellular Very important decomposers in marine env’t, esp in mangrove swamps Only 5% of all Fungi live in the Ocean

80 Micro Organisms Summary Mirco Organisms can only be seen with the aid of a mivroscope Cyanobacteria – the first photo synthesizer Archeabacteria- Thermophiles, Halophiles Chemosynthesis- creating food (glucose) from methane or sulfides from deep ocean hyrothermal vents

81 Unicellular Algae – Diatoms, Dinoflagellates and Cilliates Diatoms- silica test, frustrule (hat box design), used commerically as an abrasive. Dinoflagellates- autotrophic, heterotrophic or can switch between the two. Red Tides, Ciguatera Biomagnification Coccolithophores – round in structure. Calcium Carbonate Test.

82 Ciliates – cilia used for locomotion. Psuedopodia – false foot used for locomotion in radiolarians. Fungi – important decomposers. Eukaryotic, Heterotrophs.

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