Presentation on theme: "Micro Organisms in the Ocean. Homework Read p 86-88 What are the most important primary producers in many marine environments? What is the difference."— Presentation transcript:
Homework Read p 86-88 What are the most important primary producers in many marine environments? What is the difference between Archaea and Bacteria Define detitrus What is cyanobateria and what is its connection to stromatolites What is endolithtic bacteria and where is it found?
Homework Read p 89- 95 1. What two types of compounds can a chemoautotroph get energy from? 2. What is the formula for nitrite oxidation? 3.What does anoxic mean? 4. What is a frustule? What is it made of? 5. What are two examples of biogenous sediment?
Homework Read p5-12 – 5-15 Answer Study Questions 1-4 on 5-12
In this section we will learn about the various forms of life found in the ocean Including: Microorganisms Plants Various type of Animals which we will discuss according to their classification (Phylum)
Microorganisms We will cover those organisms only visable with the aid of a microscope We will break it down into four groups: Prokaryotes Eubacteria & Archeabacteria Eukaryotic Unicellular Algae -Diatoms, Dinoflagellates Protozoan Fungi
The First Forms of Life Next time you see a bacteria thank it, for without these early forms of life, we would not have life as we know it today. Thank You
Cyanobacteria Used to be called “blue green algae”, but not an algae, a bacterium –Prokaryotic cells (algae eukaryotic) –Completely different cell wall But - similar to algae in pigments (chlorophyll a, phycobilins) And – one of earliest photo synthesizers on Earth - and actually MADE Oxygen
Stromatolites - cyanobacterial mats take calcium from seawater, deposit in sedimentary layers Early “reef” building events These were formed over millions of years
Before free oxygen – There was no ozone layer. Early organisms were restricted to the seas for protection from UV radiation Cyanobacteria creates O 2 which moves into the upper atmosphere to create O 3 (Ozone)—Now life can migrate to land
Form and Structure Centrate – a circular or round form Pennate – oblong form Raphe = groove that allows movement via contractile fibers Two part hat box design of the Frustrule Silica test (shell) – glass like allows for light to penetrate for photosynthesis
Unicellular Algae is part of the Domain 1.Archaebacteria 2.Eubacteria 3.Eukaryotes 4.Prokaryotes
Diatoms have a Hatbox design known as a 1.Turnstile 2.Boxstule 3.Frustule 4.Silictile
Diatoms have a Silicate Test to allow _____ pass through 1.Water 2.Oxygen 3.Glucose 4.Light
The outer “shell” of a Diatom is referred to as a 1.Skeleton 2.Test 3.Armor plate 4.Skin
Pseudo-nitzschia sp. Parsons’ pic from Hilo Bay below
Dinoflagellates Phylum Dinoflagellata or Pyrrophyta Sulcus (groove) – their version of the Raphe. Also for movement with the use of a flagella Cellulose “armor” is not see through 2 flagella – placement determines class Can be Heterotrophs, Autotrophs or Both
The sulcus is where you would find the 1.Flagella 2.Cilia 3.Arms 4.Mouth
The Flagella is primarily used for 1.Attracting Mates 2.Attracting Prey 3.Movement 4.None of the Above
Dinoflagellates are 1.Autotrophic 2.Heterotrophic 3.Both 4.Neither
Dinoflagellate importance Red tides – blooms will close beaches Ciguatera – causes sickness in humans due to their ingestion of large reef fish Bioluminescence in water Zooxanthellae – reef builders Pfisteria – Can switch between autotroph and heterotroph. Releases neurotoxins.
Ciguatera around the Big Island Causes many GI problems. Hot/Cold reversal Can be transmitted to others No effective treatment Symptoms can last weeks to years (in extreme cases) Caused by eating top level predator reef fish.
Pfiesteria piscicida Can morph from Autotrophic to Heterotropic based on need. HIGHLY TOXIC even at low levels
Dinoflagellates Noctiluca Bioluminescent- Glows in water thanks to Luciferase
If you eat a top level predator reef fish you are in danger of getting 1.The Flu 2.Ciguatera 3.Red Tide 4.Melanoma
A Red Tide is a result of a biological bloom of 1.Cyanobacteria 2.Dinoflagellates 3.Pfisteria
Coccolithophores Unicellular algae Calcium carbonate test Circular in structure
Foraminiferans Amoeba shape with pseudopodia that stick out of spiral “shell” arrangement to catch food Calcium carbonate test Like it warm – info about past climate chalk, White Cliffs of Dover, calcareous ooze
Psuedopodia means 1.False arms 2.False Body 3.False Foot 4.Calcium
Radiolarians have a _________ test 1.Cellulose 2.Silicate 3.Calcuim Carbonate 4.None of the above
Fungi Eukaryotes Heterotrophic Reproduction through Spores Cell wall of chitin Single or multicellular Very important decomposers in marine env’t, esp in mangrove swamps Only 5% of all Fungi live in the Ocean
Micro Organisms Summary Mirco Organisms can only be seen with the aid of a mivroscope Cyanobacteria – the first photo synthesizer Archeabacteria- Thermophiles, Halophiles Chemosynthesis- creating food (glucose) from methane or sulfides from deep ocean hyrothermal vents
Unicellular Algae – Diatoms, Dinoflagellates and Cilliates Diatoms- silica test, frustrule (hat box design), used commerically as an abrasive. Dinoflagellates- autotrophic, heterotrophic or can switch between the two. Red Tides, Ciguatera Biomagnification Coccolithophores – round in structure. Calcium Carbonate Test.
Ciliates – cilia used for locomotion. Psuedopodia – false foot used for locomotion in radiolarians. Fungi – important decomposers. Eukaryotic, Heterotrophs.