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Chapter 12: The World War I Era

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1 Chapter 12: The World War I Era
I. The Road to War

2 Bell Ringer Define neutral
What impact might the presence of many first-generation European immigrants have had on the position of the United States toward entering the war?

3 Objectives Identify the main causes of world War I.
Understand how the conflict expanded to draw in much of Europe. Analyze how the Us responded to the war in Europe.

4 A) Setting the Scene June 28th, 1914 – Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo. Wanted Bosnia to be part of Serbia, not the Austrian-Hungarian Empire.

5 B) Causes of World War I a) Imperialism: All the good land had been taken – If Germany wanted land – have to take it from England and France Militarism: build up military and allow the military to have great say in government and foreign policy b) Nationalism – what was good for one country might cause a war Alsace-Lorraine: border region between Germany and France – speak French but controlled by Germany Diverse ethnic pollution in countries that were controlled by other “people” c) Alliances: Germany and Austria-Hungary; Russia and France; Great Britain and France

6 C) The Conflict Expands
Austria-Hungary blamed Bosnia for the assassination of their heir Declares war Russia began mobilizing to defend Serbia mobilization: readying of troops for war Germany began mobilizing to defend Austria-Hungary France gets ready to defend against Germany Germany attacks France and goes through neutral Belgium – Britain declares war on Germany One week – the continent at war movie

7 Stalemate Central Powers: Germany and Austria-Hungary
Allies: France, Serbia, and Great Britain Stalemate: situation in which neither side is able to gain the advantage Germany and the Schlieffen Plan got 30 miles from Paris – lines stabilized Trench warfare – no man’s land Germany fighting a war on both sides Ottoman Empire (Turkey) join the Central Powers – Italy joins Allies

8 Modern Warfare Machine guns Rapid fire artillery Poison gases
Generals thought superiority of numbers would win – ordered soldiers to go “over the top” Battle of the Somme – British 60,000 casualties in one day – 20,000 dead Poisoned wells, killed livestock, Britain blockaded Germany, submarines sunk everything

9 D) The American Response
1/3 of US immigrants or children of immigrants and felt involved Irish and German Americans wanted to join the Central Powers Most Americans favored UK Germany – monarchy propaganda: information intended to sway public opinion (lies) British lied to US about German occupation

10 American Neutrality: German submarines try to blockade Britain – US big trade partner with Britain – we declare neutrality Preparedness Movement - US slowly begins to prepare for war – build up and train armed forces Peace Movement – peace marches, taxed guns to pay for preparedness

11 Review What were the main causes of WWI?
How did conflict expand to draw in much of Europe? In what ways did the US respond to the war in Europe?

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