Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byClementine Sharp Modified over 6 years ago

2
Orbital Notation and Electron Configuration October 20th

3
Distance From The Nucleus Called the Principle Quantum Number (n) Describes the principle energy level n = 1, 2, 3 Called the Principle Quantum Number (n) Describes the principle energy level n = 1, 2, 3

4
Shape of the Orbital Described by Orbital quantum number (l) Tells you the shape of the orbital the electron is in Is it an s, p, d, or f orbital? Described by Orbital quantum number (l) Tells you the shape of the orbital the electron is in Is it an s, p, d, or f orbital?

5
Position in 3D Space Described by Magnetic Quantum Number (m) Indicated the position of the orbital around the 3 axes (x, y, z) Described by Magnetic Quantum Number (m) Indicated the position of the orbital around the 3 axes (x, y, z)

6
Electron’s Spin The direction of the electron’s spin is described by the spin quantum number Electrons can be either up or down When electrons are part of a pair, they must spin in opposite directions The direction of the electron’s spin is described by the spin quantum number Electrons can be either up or down When electrons are part of a pair, they must spin in opposite directions

7
Pauli Exclusion Principle No two electrons in the same atom can have the same four quantum numbers (the same description) No two electrons can have the same address Electrons are repulsed by each other, so they cannot live together… Hence makes sense they have opposite spins! No two electrons in the same atom can have the same four quantum numbers (the same description) No two electrons can have the same address Electrons are repulsed by each other, so they cannot live together… Hence makes sense they have opposite spins!

8
Review Of Energy Levels n = 1 s orbital (2 electrons) n = 2 s orbital (2 electrons) p orbital (6 electrons) n = 3 s orbital (2 electrons) p orbital (6 electrons) d orbital (10 electrons) n = 4 s orbital (2 electrons) p orbital (6 electrons) d orbital (10 electrons) f orbital (14 electrons) n = 1 s orbital (2 electrons) n = 2 s orbital (2 electrons) p orbital (6 electrons) n = 3 s orbital (2 electrons) p orbital (6 electrons) d orbital (10 electrons) n = 4 s orbital (2 electrons) p orbital (6 electrons) d orbital (10 electrons) f orbital (14 electrons)

9
3 Rules for Electron Configuration 1) Aufbau Principle - electrons occupy the orbitals of lowest energy first 2) Pauli Exclusion Principle - no two electrons can have the same address(same 4 quantum #s) 3) Hund’s Rule - Electrons try to occupy different orbitals before pairing up 1) Aufbau Principle - electrons occupy the orbitals of lowest energy first 2) Pauli Exclusion Principle - no two electrons can have the same address(same 4 quantum #s) 3) Hund’s Rule - Electrons try to occupy different orbitals before pairing up

11
Orbital Notation order in which electrons are filled

12
The Order in which orbitals fill…

13
Orbital Notation

14
Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms Each orbital can be assigned no more than 2 electrons! Each orbital can hold a pair of electrons per orientation s1 orientation(pair) 2 electrons p3 orientations 6 electrons d5 orientations 10 electrons f7 orientations 14 electrons Each orbital can be assigned no more than 2 electrons! Each orbital can hold a pair of electrons per orientation s1 orientation(pair) 2 electrons p3 orientations 6 electrons d5 orientations 10 electrons f7 orientations 14 electrons

15
Orbital Diagram _____ 1s __________ _____ _____ 2s 2px 2py 2pz __________ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ 3s 3px 3py 3pz 3d _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ 4s 4px 4py 4pz 4d _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ 5s 5px 5py 5pz 5d _____ 6s

16
How Orbitals Fill…. _____ 1s __________ _____ _____ 2s 2px 2py 2pz __________ _____ _____ 3s 3px 3py 3pz _____ 1s __________ _____ _____ 2s 2px 2py 2pz __________ _____ _____ 3s 3px 3py 3pz

17
Electron Configuration – Strontium _____ 1s __________ _____ _____ 2s 2px 2py 2pz __________ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ 3s 3px 3py 3pz 3d _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ 4s 4px 4py 4pz 4d _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ 5s 5px 5py 5pz 5d _____ 6s

18
Valence electrons are electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom. _____ 1s __________ _____ _____ 2s 2px 2py 2pz __________ _____ _____ 3s 3px 3py 3pz Valence electrons Example: Sulfur

19
Practice on your own! Draw the orbital diagram for Calcium Draw the orbital diagram for Silicon Draw the orbital diagram for Calcium Draw the orbital diagram for Silicon

20
Electron Configuration 1 1 s Energy Level Subshell (s, p, d, f) no. of electrons for H, atomic number = 1

21
Electron Configuration Fortunately! Its like orbital diagrams but without drawing the orbitals… Fill electrons into lower energy levels first Follow order of filling Remember how many electrons each level can hold: s holds 2, p holds 6, d 10, f 14 Fortunately! Its like orbital diagrams but without drawing the orbitals… Fill electrons into lower energy levels first Follow order of filling Remember how many electrons each level can hold: s holds 2, p holds 6, d 10, f 14

22
Examples Helium: 1s 2 Boron : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 Magnesium: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 Bromine: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 5 Helium: 1s 2 Boron : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 Magnesium: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 Bromine: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 5

23
1s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 3 Practice on your own! Hydrogen Sodium Magnesium Chlorine Argon Arsenic

24
Octet rule - all elements want to have a full set of valence electrons Atoms will lose or gain electrons in trying to achieve a full octet Octet rule - all elements want to have a full set of valence electrons Atoms will lose or gain electrons in trying to achieve a full octet Octet Rule

25
Octet Rule states that atoms will gain or lose electrons to achieve a full outermost energy level. This is usually 8 electrons (s 2 p 6 ). Example: Oxygen _____ 1s __________ _____ _____ 2s 2px 2py 2pz O Octet Rule

Similar presentations

© 2022 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

To make this website work, we log user data and share it with processors. To use this website, you must agree to our Privacy Policy, including cookie policy.

Ads by Google