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Schizophrenia An overview of explanations and therapies.

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1 Schizophrenia An overview of explanations and therapies

2 Recap:  What is the double-bind theory – what explanation does this come under?  What is the Diathesis stress model? How does it link with a theory?  How might abnormal brain structure affect someone to have symptoms?  Under what view would argue that schizophrenia can be learnt?

3 The case study of Carol:  Read through the hand out and describe all symptoms, then label them as negative or positive.  What was the home environment like for her?  What treatment did she receive?  What model is linked to this particular study and how would it explain a relapse in symptoms?  How does this link with Beck and Ellis’ method in trying to change / challenge the negative emotions of faulty cognitions?

4 Evaluating CBT  In your group, design a model for how you would attempt to change a person’s faulty cognitive process.  Would you get them to tell you what they feel?  Would you try to get them to rationalise their thoughts?  What are the difficulties with this?

5 Evaluating Psych-analysis  Using ‘Freud's famous couch’ how would you cure your patient  Would you use dream analysis, how would this help your patient?  Would you use free-association?  What are the limitations of this?

6 Place your pen along the ‘x’ axis on the graph Very effective Very ineffective Biological Psychological Evidence Evaluation Point Key Drug therapy

7 Exam style questions: (9 marks) – aim for 30 mins  01: For 5 marks: outline – To get full marks describe in detail  02 For 4 marks: Outline an explanation of schizophrenia. (AO1) Describe what the explanation is and how it explains how someone gets schizophrenia.  EG: Biological approach claims that schizophrenia is either genetic, or affected through bio-chemicals.  Adoption/twin studies have shown a concordance rate among MZ twins  Under this approach, the biological approach states that higher levels of dopamine causes positive symptoms (Dopamine hypothesis)

8 For 16 marks: (A01, A02 and A03)  You need to outline, describe, outline and evaluate from both sides.  IE : “Evaluate psychological explanation for schizophrenia”  Do not start with what schizophrenia is… that is not relevant to the question.  Start with psychodynamic view of schizophrenia  Then criticise that- ie there is little evidence for this.  Then mention socio-cultural factors: ie life events  Mention Scheff’s labelling theory (this is in your handbook!)

9 Exam scenario “Outline Clinical characteristics of schizophrenia” ( 5 marks) Give examples of symptoms with reference to what they mean, how they affect the individual, and if they are negative or positive. Give 5 examples with reference if they are negative or positive. 5 examples with little or no detail. List a few symptoms with no reference to what they mean. Little or no reference to the question with one or two vague symptoms mentioned A B C D E

10 Exam scenario “Schizophrenics do not require biological therapies, just psychological ones”. How far do you agree with this statement? (16 marks) Addresses the ‘How far?’ aspect of the question/Explains three or more therapies with evaluative analysis and refers to studies as evidence. Direct reference to the question/quotation/ begins to analyse the effectiveness of three or more therapies. Some direct reference to the question and quotation with explanation about the effectiveness of more than two therapies Some reference to the question with largely descriptive sentences about two therapies Little or no reference to the quotation or the question/some extremely vague reference to treatments. A B C D E

11 Most importantly…  Revise from the handbook I have given you, and you will do really well. See me if you need advise for how to write exam questions. This will be covered at the end of each unit.

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