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1 1 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Chapter 15 Multiple Regression n Multiple Regression Model n Least Squares Method n Multiple Coefficient of Determination n Model Assumptions n Testing for Significance n Using the Estimated Regression Equation for Estimation and Prediction for Estimation and Prediction n Categorical Independent Variables n Residual Analysis n Logistic Regression

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2 2 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. n In this chapter we continue our study of regression analysis by considering situations involving two or more independent variables. Multiple Regression n This subject area, called multiple regression analysis, enables us to consider more factors and thus obtain better estimates than are possible with simple linear regression.

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3 3 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The equation that describes how the dependent variable y is related to the independent variables x 1, x 2,... x p and an error term is: The equation that describes how the dependent variable y is related to the independent variables x 1, x 2,... x p and an error term is: Multiple Regression Model y = 0 + 1 x 1 + 2 x 2 +... + p x p + where: 0, 1, 2,..., p are the parameters, and is a random variable called the error term n Multiple Regression Model

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4 4 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The equation that describes how the mean value of y is related to x 1, x 2,... x p is: The equation that describes how the mean value of y is related to x 1, x 2,... x p is: Multiple Regression Equation E ( y ) = 0 + 1 x 1 + 2 x 2 +... + p x p n Multiple Regression Equation

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5 5 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. A simple random sample is used to compute sample statistics b 0, b 1, b 2,..., b p that are used as the point estimators of the parameters 0, 1, 2,..., p. Estimated Multiple Regression Equation ^ y = b 0 + b 1 x 1 + b 2 x 2 +... + b p x p Estimated Multiple Regression Equation Estimated Multiple Regression Equation

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6 6 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Estimation Process Multiple Regression Model E ( y ) = 0 + 1 x 1 + 2 x 2 +...+ p x p + Multiple Regression Equation E ( y ) = 0 + 1 x 1 + 2 x 2 +...+ p x p Unknown parameters are 0, 1, 2,..., p Sample Data: x 1 x 2... x p y.... Estimated Multiple Regression Equation Sample statistics are b 0, b 1, b 2,..., b p b 0, b 1, b 2,..., b p b 0, b 1, b 2,..., b p provide estimates of 0, 1, 2,..., p

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7 7 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Least Squares Method n Least Squares Criterion n Computation of Coefficient Values The formulas for the regression coefficients The formulas for the regression coefficients b 0, b 1, b 2,... b p involve the use of matrix algebra. We will rely on computer software packages to perform the calculations.

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8 8 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Least Squares Method n Computation of Coefficient Values The formulas for the regression coefficients The formulas for the regression coefficients b 0, b 1, b 2,... b p involve the use of matrix algebra. We will rely on computer software packages to perform the calculations. The emphasis will be on how to interpret the The emphasis will be on how to interpret the computer output rather than on how to make the multiple regression computations.

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9 9 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The years of experience, score on the aptitude test test, and corresponding annual salary ($1000s) for a sample of 20 programmers is shown on the next slide. n Example: Programmer Salary Survey Multiple Regression Model A software firm collected data for a sample of 20 A software firm collected data for a sample of 20 computer programmers. A suggestion was made that regression analysis could be used to determine if salary was related to the years of experience and the score on the firm’s programmer aptitude test.

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10 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 471581001669210568463378100868286847580839188737581748779947089 24.043.023.734.335.838.022.223.130.033.0 38.026.636.231.629.034.030.133.928.230.0 Exper.(Yrs.) TestScore TestScore Exper.(Yrs.) Salary($000s) Salary($000s) Multiple Regression Model

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11 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Suppose we believe that salary ( y ) is related to Suppose we believe that salary ( y ) is related to the years of experience ( x 1 ) and the score on the programmer aptitude test ( x 2 ) by the following regression model: Multiple Regression Model where y = annual salary ($000) y = annual salary ($000) x 1 = years of experience x 1 = years of experience x 2 = score on programmer aptitude test x 2 = score on programmer aptitude test y = 0 + 1 x 1 + 2 x 2 +

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12 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Solving for the Estimates of 0, 1, 2 Input Data Least Squares Output x 1 x 2 y 4 78 24 4 78 24 7 100 43 7 100 43...... 3 89 30 3 89 30 ComputerPackage for Solving MultipleRegressionProblems b 0 = b 0 = b 1 = b 2 = R 2 = etc.

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13 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. n Regression Equation Output Solving for the Estimates of 0, 1, 2 CoefSE CoefT p Constant3.173946.156070.51560.61279 Experience1.40390.198577.07021.9E-06 Test Score0.250890.077353.24330.00478 Predictor

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14 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Estimated Regression Equation SALARY = 3.174 + 1.404(EXPER) + 0.251(SCORE) Note: Predicted salary will be in thousands of dollars.

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15 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Interpreting the Coefficients In multiple regression analysis, we interpret each In multiple regression analysis, we interpret each regression coefficient as follows: regression coefficient as follows: b i represents an estimate of the change in y b i represents an estimate of the change in y corresponding to a 1-unit increase in x i when all corresponding to a 1-unit increase in x i when all other independent variables are held constant. other independent variables are held constant.

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16 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Salary is expected to increase by $1,404 for Salary is expected to increase by $1,404 for each additional year of experience (when the variable score on programmer attitude test is held constant). b 1 = 1.404 Interpreting the Coefficients

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17 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Salary is expected to increase by $251 for each Salary is expected to increase by $251 for each additional point scored on the programmer aptitude additional point scored on the programmer aptitude test (when the variable years of experience is held constant). b 2 = 0.251 Interpreting the Coefficients

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18 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Multiple Coefficient of Determination n Relationship Among SST, SSR, SSE where: SST = total sum of squares SST = total sum of squares SSR = sum of squares due to regression SSR = sum of squares due to regression SSE = sum of squares due to error SSE = sum of squares due to error SST = SSR + SSE = +

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19 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. n ANOVA Output Multiple Coefficient of Determination Analysis of Variance DFSSMSFP Regression 2500.3285250.16442.760.000 Residual Error1799.456975.850 Total19599.7855 SOURCE SSTSST SSRSSR

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20 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Multiple Coefficient of Determination R 2 = 500.3285/599.7855 =.83418 R 2 = SSR/SST

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21 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Adjusted Multiple Coefficient of Determination n Adding independent variables, even ones that are not statistically significant, causes the prediction errors to become smaller, thus reducing the sum of squares due to error, SSE. n Because SSR = SST – SSE, when SSE becomes smaller, SSR becomes larger, causing R 2 = SSR/SST to increase. n The adjusted multiple coefficient of determination compensates for the number of independent variables in the model.

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22 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Adjusted Multiple Coefficient of Determination

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23 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The variance of , denoted by 2, is the same for all The variance of , denoted by 2, is the same for all values of the independent variables. values of the independent variables. The variance of , denoted by 2, is the same for all The variance of , denoted by 2, is the same for all values of the independent variables. values of the independent variables. The error is a normally distributed random variable The error is a normally distributed random variable reflecting the deviation between the y value and the reflecting the deviation between the y value and the expected value of y given by 0 + 1 x 1 + 2 x 2 +.. + p x p. expected value of y given by 0 + 1 x 1 + 2 x 2 +.. + p x p. The error is a normally distributed random variable The error is a normally distributed random variable reflecting the deviation between the y value and the reflecting the deviation between the y value and the expected value of y given by 0 + 1 x 1 + 2 x 2 +.. + p x p. expected value of y given by 0 + 1 x 1 + 2 x 2 +.. + p x p. Assumptions About the Error Term The error is a random variable with mean of zero. The error is a random variable with mean of zero. The values of are independent. The values of are independent.

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24 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. In simple linear regression, the F and t tests provide In simple linear regression, the F and t tests provide the same conclusion. the same conclusion. In simple linear regression, the F and t tests provide In simple linear regression, the F and t tests provide the same conclusion. the same conclusion. Testing for Significance In multiple regression, the F and t tests have different In multiple regression, the F and t tests have different purposes. purposes. In multiple regression, the F and t tests have different In multiple regression, the F and t tests have different purposes. purposes.

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25 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Testing for Significance: F Test The F test is referred to as the test for overall The F test is referred to as the test for overall significance. significance. The F test is referred to as the test for overall The F test is referred to as the test for overall significance. significance. The F test is used to determine whether a significant The F test is used to determine whether a significant relationship exists between the dependent variable relationship exists between the dependent variable and the set of all the independent variables. and the set of all the independent variables. The F test is used to determine whether a significant The F test is used to determine whether a significant relationship exists between the dependent variable relationship exists between the dependent variable and the set of all the independent variables. and the set of all the independent variables.

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26 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. A separate t test is conducted for each of the A separate t test is conducted for each of the independent variables in the model. independent variables in the model. A separate t test is conducted for each of the A separate t test is conducted for each of the independent variables in the model. independent variables in the model. If the F test shows an overall significance, the t test is If the F test shows an overall significance, the t test is used to determine whether each of the individual used to determine whether each of the individual independent variables is significant. independent variables is significant. If the F test shows an overall significance, the t test is If the F test shows an overall significance, the t test is used to determine whether each of the individual used to determine whether each of the individual independent variables is significant. independent variables is significant. Testing for Significance: t Test We refer to each of these t tests as a test for individual We refer to each of these t tests as a test for individual significance. significance. We refer to each of these t tests as a test for individual We refer to each of these t tests as a test for individual significance. significance.

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27 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Testing for Significance: F Test HypothesesHypotheses Rejection Rule Test Statistics H 0 : 1 = 2 =... = p = 0 H 0 : 1 = 2 =... = p = 0 H a : One or more of the parameters H a : One or more of the parameters is not equal to zero. is not equal to zero. F = MSR/MSE Reject H 0 if p -value F where F is based on an F distribution with p d.f. in the numerator and n - p - 1 d.f. in the denominator.

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28 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. F Test for Overall Significance HypothesesHypotheses H 0 : 1 = 2 = 0 H 0 : 1 = 2 = 0 H a : One or both of the parameters H a : One or both of the parameters is not equal to zero. is not equal to zero. Rejection Rule For =.05 and d.f. = 2, 17; F.05 = 3.59 Reject H 0 if p -value 3.59

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29 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. n ANOVA Output F Test for Overall Significance Analysis of Variance DFSSMSFP Regression 2500.3285250.16442.760.000 Residual Error1799.456975.850 Total19599.7855 SOURCE p -value used to test for overall significance overall significance p -value used to test for overall significance overall significance

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30 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. F Test for Overall Significance Test Statistics F = MSR/MSE = 250.16/5.85 = 42.76 = 250.16/5.85 = 42.76 ConclusionConclusion p -value <.05, so we can reject H 0. (Also, F = 42.76 > 3.59)

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31 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Testing for Significance: t Test HypothesesHypotheses Rejection Rule Test Statistics Reject H 0 if p -value < or if t t where t is based on a t distribution with n - p - 1 degrees of freedom.

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32 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. t Test for Significance of Individual Parameters HypothesesHypotheses Rejection Rule For =.05 and d.f. = 17, t.025 = 2.11 Reject H 0 if p -value <.05, or if t 2.11 if t 2.11

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33 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. CoefSE CoefT p Constant3.173946.156070.51560.61279 Experience1.40390.198577.07021.9E-06 Test Score0.250890.077353.24330.00478 Predictor n Regression Equation Output t Test for Significance of Individual Parameters t statistic and p -value used to test for the individual significance of “Experience”

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34 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. t Test for Significance of Individual Parameters Test Statistics ConclusionsConclusions Reject both H 0 : 1 = 0 and H 0 : 2 = 0. Both independent variables are significant.

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35 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Testing for Significance: Multicollinearity The term multicollinearity refers to the correlation The term multicollinearity refers to the correlation among the independent variables. among the independent variables. The term multicollinearity refers to the correlation The term multicollinearity refers to the correlation among the independent variables. among the independent variables. When the independent variables are highly correlated When the independent variables are highly correlated (say, | r | >.7), it is not possible to determine the (say, | r | >.7), it is not possible to determine the separate effect of any particular independent variable separate effect of any particular independent variable on the dependent variable. on the dependent variable. When the independent variables are highly correlated When the independent variables are highly correlated (say, | r | >.7), it is not possible to determine the (say, | r | >.7), it is not possible to determine the separate effect of any particular independent variable separate effect of any particular independent variable on the dependent variable. on the dependent variable.

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36 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Testing for Significance: Multicollinearity Every attempt should be made to avoid including Every attempt should be made to avoid including independent variables that are highly correlated. independent variables that are highly correlated. Every attempt should be made to avoid including Every attempt should be made to avoid including independent variables that are highly correlated. independent variables that are highly correlated. If the estimated regression equation is to be used only If the estimated regression equation is to be used only for predictive purposes, multicollinearity is usually for predictive purposes, multicollinearity is usually not a serious problem. not a serious problem. If the estimated regression equation is to be used only If the estimated regression equation is to be used only for predictive purposes, multicollinearity is usually for predictive purposes, multicollinearity is usually not a serious problem. not a serious problem.

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37 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Using the Estimated Regression Equation for Estimation and Prediction The procedures for estimating the mean value of y The procedures for estimating the mean value of y and predicting an individual value of y in multiple and predicting an individual value of y in multiple regression are similar to those in simple regression. regression are similar to those in simple regression. The procedures for estimating the mean value of y The procedures for estimating the mean value of y and predicting an individual value of y in multiple and predicting an individual value of y in multiple regression are similar to those in simple regression. regression are similar to those in simple regression. We substitute the given values of x 1, x 2,..., x p into We substitute the given values of x 1, x 2,..., x p into the estimated regression equation and use the the estimated regression equation and use the corresponding value of y as the point estimate. corresponding value of y as the point estimate. We substitute the given values of x 1, x 2,..., x p into We substitute the given values of x 1, x 2,..., x p into the estimated regression equation and use the the estimated regression equation and use the corresponding value of y as the point estimate. corresponding value of y as the point estimate.

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38 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Using the Estimated Regression Equation for Estimation and Prediction Software packages for multiple regression will often Software packages for multiple regression will often provide these interval estimates. provide these interval estimates. Software packages for multiple regression will often Software packages for multiple regression will often provide these interval estimates. provide these interval estimates. The formulas required to develop interval estimates The formulas required to develop interval estimates for the mean value of y and for an individual value for the mean value of y and for an individual value of y are beyond the scope of the textbook. of y are beyond the scope of the textbook. The formulas required to develop interval estimates The formulas required to develop interval estimates for the mean value of y and for an individual value for the mean value of y and for an individual value of y are beyond the scope of the textbook. of y are beyond the scope of the textbook. ^^

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39 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. In many situations we must work with categorical In many situations we must work with categorical independent variables such as gender (male, female), independent variables such as gender (male, female), method of payment (cash, check, credit card), etc. method of payment (cash, check, credit card), etc. In many situations we must work with categorical In many situations we must work with categorical independent variables such as gender (male, female), independent variables such as gender (male, female), method of payment (cash, check, credit card), etc. method of payment (cash, check, credit card), etc. For example, x 2 might represent gender where x 2 = 0 For example, x 2 might represent gender where x 2 = 0 indicates male and x 2 = 1 indicates female. indicates male and x 2 = 1 indicates female. For example, x 2 might represent gender where x 2 = 0 For example, x 2 might represent gender where x 2 = 0 indicates male and x 2 = 1 indicates female. indicates male and x 2 = 1 indicates female. Categorical Independent Variables In this case, x 2 is called a dummy or indicator variable. In this case, x 2 is called a dummy or indicator variable.

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40 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The years of experience, the score on the programmer aptitude test, whether the individual has a relevant graduate degree, and the annual salary ($000) for each of the sampled 20 programmers are shown on the next slide. Categorical Independent Variables n Example: Programmer Salary Survey As an extension of the problem involving the computer programmer salary survey, suppose that management also believes that the annual salary is related to whether the individual has a graduate degree in computer science or information systems.

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41 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 471581001669210568463378100868286847580839188737581748779947089 24.043.023.734.335.838.022.223.130.033.0 38.026.636.231.629.034.030.133.928.230.0 Exper.(Yrs.) TestScoreTestScoreExper.(Yrs.)Salary($000s) Salary($000s) Degr. No NoYes YesYesYes Yes Degr. Yes Yes No NoYes Yes Yes Categorical Independent Variables

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42 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Estimated Regression Equation ^where: y = annual salary ($1000) y = annual salary ($1000) x 1 = years of experience x 1 = years of experience x 2 = score on programmer aptitude test x 2 = score on programmer aptitude test x 3 = 0 if individual does not have a graduate degree x 3 = 0 if individual does not have a graduate degree 1 if individual does have a graduate degree 1 if individual does have a graduate degree x 3 is a dummy variable y = b 0 + b 1 x 1 + b 2 x 2 + b 3 x 3 ^

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43 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. n ANOVA Output Analysis of Variance DFSSMSFP Regression 3507.8960269.29929.480.000 Residual Error1691.88955.743 Total19599.7855 SOURCE Categorical Independent Variables R 2 = 507.896/599.7855 =.8468 Previously, R Square =.8342 Previously, Previously,Adjusted R Square =.815 Previously,Adjusted

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44 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. CoefSE CoefT p Constant7.9457.3821.0760.298 Experience1.1480.2983.8560.001 Test Score0.1970.0902.1910.044 Predictor n Regression Equation Output Categorical Independent Variables Grad. Degr.2.2801.9871.1480.268 Not significant

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45 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. More Complex Categorical Variables If a categorical variable has k levels, k - 1 dummy If a categorical variable has k levels, k - 1 dummy variables are required, with each dummy variable variables are required, with each dummy variable being coded as 0 or 1. being coded as 0 or 1. If a categorical variable has k levels, k - 1 dummy If a categorical variable has k levels, k - 1 dummy variables are required, with each dummy variable variables are required, with each dummy variable being coded as 0 or 1. being coded as 0 or 1. For example, a variable with levels A, B, and C could For example, a variable with levels A, B, and C could be represented by x 1 and x 2 values of (0, 0) for A, (1, 0) be represented by x 1 and x 2 values of (0, 0) for A, (1, 0) for B, and (0,1) for C. for B, and (0,1) for C. For example, a variable with levels A, B, and C could For example, a variable with levels A, B, and C could be represented by x 1 and x 2 values of (0, 0) for A, (1, 0) be represented by x 1 and x 2 values of (0, 0) for A, (1, 0) for B, and (0,1) for C. for B, and (0,1) for C. Care must be taken in defining and interpreting the Care must be taken in defining and interpreting the dummy variables. dummy variables. Care must be taken in defining and interpreting the Care must be taken in defining and interpreting the dummy variables. dummy variables.

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46 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. For example, a variable indicating level of education could be represented by x 1 and x 2 values as follows: For example, a variable indicating level of education could be represented by x 1 and x 2 values as follows: More Complex Categorical Variables Highest Degree x 1 x 2 Bachelor’s00 Master’s10 Ph.D.01

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47 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Residual Analysis n For simple linear regression the residual plot against and the residual plot against x provide the same information. and the residual plot against x provide the same information. n In multiple regression analysis it is preferable to use the residual plot against to determine if the model assumptions are satisfied.

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48 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Standardized Residual Plot Against n Standardized residuals are frequently used in residual plots for purposes of: Identifying outliers (typically, standardized residuals +2) Identifying outliers (typically, standardized residuals +2) Providing insight about the assumption that the error term has a normal distribution Providing insight about the assumption that the error term has a normal distribution n The computation of the standardized residuals in multiple regression analysis is too complex to be done by hand n Excel’s Regression tool can be used

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49 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. n Residual Output Standardized Residual Plot Against ObservationPredicted YResidualsStandard Residuals 127.89626-3.89626-1.771707 237.952045.0479572.295406 326.02901-2.32901-1.059048 432.112012.1879860.994921 536.34251-0.54251-0.246689

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50 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Standardized Residual Plot Against n Standardized Residual Plot OutlierOutlier

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51 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Logistic Regression n Logistic regression can be used to model situations in which the dependent variable, y, may only assume two discrete values, such as 0 and 1. n In many ways logistic regression is like ordinary regression. It requires a dependent variable, y, and one or more independent variables. n The ordinary multiple regression model is not applicable.

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52 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Logistic Regression Logistic Regression Equation Logistic Regression Equation The relationship between E ( y ) and x 1, x 2,..., x p is The relationship between E ( y ) and x 1, x 2,..., x p is better described by the following nonlinear equation.

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53 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Logistic Regression Interpretation of E ( y ) as a Interpretation of E ( y ) as a Probability in Logistic Regression Probability in Logistic Regression If the two values of y are coded as 0 or 1, the value If the two values of y are coded as 0 or 1, the value of E ( y ) provides the probability that y = 1 given a particular set of values for x 1, x 2,..., x p.

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54 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Logistic Regression Estimated Logistic Regression Equation Estimated Logistic Regression Equation A simple random sample is used to compute sample statistics b 0, b 1, b 2,..., b p that are used as the point estimators of the parameters 0, 1, 2,..., p. A simple random sample is used to compute sample statistics b 0, b 1, b 2,..., b p that are used as the point estimators of the parameters 0, 1, 2,..., p.

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55 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Logistic Regression n Example: Simmons Stores Simmons’ catalogs are expensive and Simmons Simmons’ catalogs are expensive and Simmons would like to send them to only those customers who have the highest probability of making a $200 purchase using the discount coupon included in the catalog. Simmons’ management thinks that annual spending Simmons’ management thinks that annual spending at Simmons Stores and whether a customer has a Simmons credit card are two variables that might be helpful in predicting whether a customer who receives the catalog will use the coupon to make a $200 purchase.

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56 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Logistic Regression n Example: Simmons Stores Simmons conducted a study by sending out 100 Simmons conducted a study by sending out 100 catalogs, 50 to customers who have a Simmons credit card and 50 to customers who do not have the card. At the end of the test period, Simmons noted for each of the 100 customers: 1) the amount the customer spent last year at Simmons, 2) whether the customer had a Simmons credit card, and 3) whether the customer made a $200 purchase. A portion of the test data is shown on the next slide. A portion of the test data is shown on the next slide.

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57 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Logistic Regression n Simmons Test Data (partial) Customer12345678910 Annual Spending ($1000)2.2913.2152.1353.9242.5282.4732.3847.0761.1823.345 Simmons Credit Card 1110100010 $200Purchase0000010010 yy x2x2x2x2 x2x2x2x2 x1x1x1x1 x1x1x1x1

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58 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Logistic Regression Constant Spending Card -2.1464 0.3416 1.0987 0.5772 0.1287 0.4447 0.000 0.008 0.013 PredictorCoef SE Coef p 1.413.00 OddsRatio 95% CI Lower Upper 1.091.25 Simmons Logistic Regression Table (using Minitab) Simmons Logistic Regression Table (using Minitab) -3.72 2.66 2.47 Z Log-Likelihood = -60.487 Test that all slopes are zero: G = 13.628, DF = 2, P-Value = 0.001 1.817.17

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59 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Logistic Regression Simmons Estimated Logistic Regression Equation Simmons Estimated Logistic Regression Equation

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60 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Logistic Regression Using the Estimated Logistic Regression Equation Using the Estimated Logistic Regression Equation For customers that spend $2000 annually For customers that spend $2000 annually and do not have a Simmons credit card: and do not have a Simmons credit card: For customers that spend $2000 annually For customers that spend $2000 annually and do have a Simmons credit card: and do have a Simmons credit card:

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61 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Logistic Regression Testing for Significance Testing for Significance H 0 : 1 = 2 = 0 H 0 : 1 = 2 = 0 H a : One or both of the parameters H a : One or both of the parameters is not equal to zero. is not equal to zero. HypothesesHypotheses Rejection Rule Test Statistics z = b i / s b i Reject H 0 if p -value <

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62 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Logistic Regression Testing for Significance Testing for Significance Conclusions Conclusions For independent variable x 1 : z = 2.66 and the p -value Hence, 1 = 0. In other words, x 1 is statistically significant. For independent variable x 2 : z = 2.47 and the p -value Hence, 2 = 0. In other words, x 2 is also statistically significant.

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63 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Logistic Regression Odds in Favor of an Event Occurring Odds in Favor of an Event Occurring Odds Ratio Odds Ratio

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64 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Logistic Regression Estimated Probabilities Estimated Probabilities Credit Card Yes No $1000 $2000 $3000 $4000 $5000 $6000 $7000 Annual Spending 0.3305 0.4099 0.4943 0.5791 0.6594 0.7315 0.7931 0.1413 0.1880 0.2457 0.3144 0.3922 0.4759 0.5610 ComputedearlierComputedearlier

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65 Slide © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Logistic Regression Comparing Odds Comparing Odds Suppose we want to compare the odds of making a Suppose we want to compare the odds of making a $200 purchase for customers who spend $2000 annually and have a Simmons credit card to the odds of making a $200 purchase for customers who spend $2000 annually and do not have a Simmons credit card.

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