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History & Classification

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1 History & Classification
Periodic Table History & Classification

2 Mendeleev’s Periodic Table-1869
Arranged elements based on their atomic mass Dmitri Mendeleev Organized by increasing atomic mass Elements with similar properties are grouped together Predicted properties of undiscovered elements 2

3 A Spiral Periodic Table
Stowe Periodic Table

4 “Mayan” Periodic Table

5 Henry Mosely (1913, British)
Organized elements according to atomic number Resolved discrepancies in Mendeleev’s arrangements

6 The Periodic Table Period Group or Family Group or family Period
Roman Numeral = Valence electrons Group or family Period

7 Periods and Groups Horizontal Rows Groups or Families Group Numbers
Numbered 1-7 Groups or Families groups contain elements with similar properties in vertical columns. Group Numbers use the letter A for the representative elements (1A to 8A) and the letter B for the transition elements. also use numbers 1-18 to the columns from left to right

8 Periods and Groups

9 Names of Some Representative Elements
Several groups of representative elements are known by common names.

10 The Properties of a Group: the Alkali Metals
  Easily lose valence electron (Reducing agents)   React violently with water   Large hydration energy   React with halogens to form salts

11 Properties of Metals Metals are malleable Metals are ductile
Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity Metals are malleable Metals are ductile Metals have high tensile strength Metals have luster

12 Examples of Metals Potassium, K reacts with water and must be stored in kerosene Copper, Cu, is a relatively soft metal, and a very good electrical conductor. Zinc, Zn, is more stable than potassium Mercury, Hg, is the only metal that exists as a liquid at room temperature

13 Properties of Nonmetals
Carbon, the graphite in “pencil lead” is a great example of a nonmetallic element. Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electricity Nonmetals tend to be brittle Many nonmetals are gases at room temperature

14 Halogens Group 7A(17) the halogens, includes chlorine, bromine, and iodine.

15 Examples of Nonmetals Microspheres of phosphorus, P, a reactive nonmetal Sulfur, S, was once known as “brimstone” Graphite is not the only pure form of carbon, C. Diamond is also carbon; the color comes from impurities caught within the crystal structure

16 Properties of Metalloids
Metalloids straddle the border between metals and nonmetals on the periodic table. They have properties of both metals and nonmetals. Metalloids are more brittle than metals, less brittle than most nonmetallic solids Metalloids are semiconductors of electricity Some metalloids possess metallic luster

17 Silicon, Si – A Metalloid
Silicon has metallic luster Silicon is brittle like a nonmetal Silicon is a semiconductor of electricity Other metalloids include: Boron, B Germanium, Ge Arsenic, As Antimony, Sb Tellurium, Te

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