Presentation on theme: "The 3 Rhetorical Appeals. Appeals to Logic “The goal of argumentative writing is to persuade your audience that your ideas are valid, or more valid than."— Presentation transcript:
Appeals to Logic “The goal of argumentative writing is to persuade your audience that your ideas are valid, or more valid than someone else's. The Greek philosopher Aristotle divided the means of persuasion, appeals, into three categories-- Ethos, Pathos, Logos.” (Durham Tech Community College)
What is Ethos? Ethos appeals to the audience’s ethics and morals. It creates trust between the audience and the writer, which ultimately supports the argument because if the audience trusts the writer, they are more likely to be convinced and take the writer’s side.
When is it appropriate? Ethos is used to show good character and the author’s reliability.
Examples "I have pledged myself and my colleagues in the cabinet to a continuous encouragement of initiative, responsibility and energy in serving the public interest. Let every public servant know, whether his post is high or low, that a man's rank and reputation in this Administration will be determined by the size of the job he does, and not by the size of his staff, his office or his budget. Let it be clear that this Administration recognizes the value of dissent and daring -- that we greet healthy controversy as the hallmark of healthy change. Let the public service be a proud and lively career. And let every man and woman who works in any area of our national government, in any branch, at any level, be able to say with pride and with honor in future years: 'I served the United States Government in that hour of our nation's need.'"- John F. Kennedy
What is Pathos? Pathos is the emotional appeal through writing. It uses emotion to persuade the audience of thinking a certain way. Pathos is used when the reader believes something based on how they feel or what emotions were used.
When is it appropriate? Pathos is used when the author is trying to convince the audience to support their claim by getting them to feel a certain emotion. The author tends to evoke pity from their audience through pathos.
Examples “We are more compassionate than a government that lets veterans sleep on our streets and families slide into poverty; that sits on its hands while a major American city drowns before our eyes.” -Barack Obama Night Before the Election Speech Manassas, Prince William County, Virginia November 3, 2008 "I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest -- quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed.” - I Have a Dream by Martin Luther King Jr. August 28th, 1963.
What is Logos? Logos is persuasive argument through logical reasoning. It mainly focuses on arguing a claim by showing the logical explanations behind it. It is Greek for “word” and refers to the clarity of the argument, how effective the supporting arguments are, and the logical reasoning. Because of this it is also called the “logical appeal,” “logical proof,” and “rational appeal.”
When is it appropriate? Logos is used when an author is trying to explain his or her point of view through the use of logical reasoning. This is important in any number of essays, particularly scholarly articles or other types of formal writing. It is used when an author wants to argue their point by citing sources with correct facts and figures, clarifying historical facts, and citing experts on the subject they are trying to explain.
Examples “Nevertheless it represents eighty-five percent of the members of the Greek Parliament who were chosen in an election last year. Foreign observers, including 692 Americans, considered this election to be a fair expression of the views of the Greek people.” -The Truman Doctrine “Two major studies from military intelligence experts have warned our leaders about the dangerous national security implications of the climate crisis, including the possibility of hundreds of millions of climate refugees destabilizing nations around the world. Just two days ago, 27 senior statesmen and retired military leaders warned of the national security threat from an “energy tsunami” that would be triggered by a loss of our access to foreign oil. Meanwhile, the war in Iraq continues, and now the war in Afghanistan appears to be getting worse.” -Al Gore "A Generational Challenge to Repower America" July 17th 2008
Works Cited Arizona State University. “Logos, Ethos and Pathos.” 2011. Web. 28 Nov. 2011. http://www.public.asu.edu/~macalla/logosethospathos.html Durham Tech Community College. "Ethos, Pathos, and Logos." Durham Tech Courses Server. Durham Tech. Web. 28 Nov. 2011..http://courses.durhamtech.edu/perkins/aris.html Gore, Al. “A Genreational Challenge to Repower America.” DAR Congressional Hall, Washington D.C.. 17 July 2008. Kennedy, John F. “State of the Union Message.” Congress, Washington D.C. 30 January 1961. Nordquist, Richard. "Logos." Grammar and Composition - Homepage of About Grammar and Composition. About.com. Web. 28 Nov. 2011..http://grammar.about.com/od/il/g/logosterm.htm Pathos Ethos Logos. “Ethos, Pathos, Logos Explanation and Examples.” 2011. Web. 28 Nov. 2011. http://pathosethoslogos.com/