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Imperialism in India Yoona Cha, HiJo Byeun, Jinna Park.

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Presentation on theme: "Imperialism in India Yoona Cha, HiJo Byeun, Jinna Park."— Presentation transcript:

1 Imperialism in India Yoona Cha, HiJo Byeun, Jinna Park

2 Resources  Opium  Pepper  Cinnamon  Indigo  Cotton  Textile

3 Mughal Empire  1526 – late 17 th century/ early 18 th century  Developed highly sophisticated mixed Indo-Persian culture  became weak towards the end

4 British East India Company  joint-stock company formed by the British  used a tacit called “divide and conquer” to conquer India  Objective: make earnings for people through exploitation of natural resources founded in India  Set up trading posts in India  Developed almost complete political & economic control  Monopolized Indian trade  Expanded control in India through wars and commercial activity

5 Sepoy (Indian) Mutiny  1857-1859  Sepoy: a soldier native to India who is allied to a European power (esp. UK)  rebel against British East India Company for coercion of Christianity and other European customs Also known as India’s First War of Independence  Resulted in direct British control  Ended with peace treaty (July 1858)

6 Battle of Plassey  1757  Victor: British East India Company  Determined company rule in India (established in South Asia over next 90 years)

7 Queen Victoria  1877 became empress of India  Gave existing Indian royalties extended powers as long as they stayed faithful to the queen

8 Thuggees  A term for people who robbed and murdered travelers on the road

9 Jawaharlal Nehru  1 st Prime Minister or India  Leader of left-winged Indian National Congress  Advocated complete independence from the British Empire  Recognized as Gandhi's “political heir”

10 Mohammed Ali Jinnah  1876-1948  Founder of Pakistan + First Governor-General  leader of Muslim League

11 Salt March  1930  A campaign proposed by Gandhi  Gandhi sent a letter to Lord Lieutenant, but he did not even reply  Did not want to pay taxes placed on salt, thus walked a 200-mile journey from Ashram Ahmedabad to the Arabian to pick up a few grains of salt  Gandhi hoped to spread the action to the rest of India  "Ashram in Exodus”: prayer, spinning and keeping a diary

12 Muslim League  Incepted in Dhaka 1906  Muslims represented 40 % of the Indian population  Majority of Muslim leaders did not trust Hindu, thus were reluctant to join the Congress Party (Indian National Congress 1885)

13 Amritsar Massacre  April 13, 1919  Also known as Jallianwala Bagh Massacre  British Indian Army under control of Reginald Dyer shot civilians of men, women and children  Around 1526 casualties

14 Indian Nationalism  Movement created by Indians to regain control of their country  Became dissatisfied with restricted grants by the British  Lacked equal job opportunities  Could not obtain jobs of high positions in government  More Indians received ‘quality’ education, thus developing dignity in the Indian heritage

15 Indian Independence Movement  “various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both nonviolent and militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial administration in South Asia.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wikihttp://en.wikipedia.org/wikiIndian_independence_movement

16 First Meeting of Indian National Congress  Incepted in 1885 by middle class Indians  Goals: democracy, equality, self-rule  Subdivision of Bengal influenced more radical actions  Ex) Swadeshi movement: the purchase and use of Indian made products and resources and boycott of foreign products Forerunner of Gandhi, and India’s independence

17 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi  1869-1948  Political & spiritual leader of India during British Imperialism  Promoted passive boycotts (non- violence)  Ex) Spinning wheel  1921, Gained leadership of Indian National Congress  Achieved Swaraj

18 Swaraj  “self-governance”  Gandhi’s concept of India’s independence from foreign domination  "It may be taunted with the retort that this is all Utopian and, therefore not worth a single thought... Let India live for the true picture, though never realizable in its completeness. We must have a proper picture of what we want before we can have something approaching it.”  Parel, Anthony. Hind Swaraj and other writings of M. K. Gandhi. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, 1997, pp 189.

19 Consequences  Good:  medical + technology development  Extended education (establishment of universities + schools)  Terminate problems in Indian culture  Ex) burning alive, child brides, caste system, etc.  Infrastructure  Ex) construction of roads, railroads, telegraph cables, and canals

20 Consequences II  Bad:  Prejudice  Coercion of labor  Influence of European customs on religious practices  Hindrance of economic progress, thus still one of the most substandard countries in the world

21 Bibliography  http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_plassey.html http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_plassey.html  http://murshidabad.gov.in/plassey.htm http://murshidabad.gov.in/plassey.htm  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/  http://thenagain.info/webchron/India/IndiaNational.html http://thenagain.info/webchron/India/IndiaNational.html  http://www.mapsofindia.com/amritsar/massacre.html


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