Presentation on theme: "Atoms. Periodic Table and Electron Configurations Build-up order given by position on periodic table; row by row. Elements in same column will have the."— Presentation transcript:
Periodic Table and Electron Configurations Build-up order given by position on periodic table; row by row. Elements in same column will have the same outer shell electron configuration.
The relation between orbital filling and the periodic table
Electron Configuration Orbitals have definite shapes and orientations in space (insert Fig 2.11 of text) (if it will not all fit on one screen, put part (a) on one screen and part (b) on the next)
Orbital occupancy for the first 10 elements, H through Ne.
Atomic radii of the main- group and transition elements. Trends in the Periodic Table
Trend for atomic radii Left to right atoms get smaller Why? –Increase in nuclear charge –More protons and more electrons means greater electrostatic attractions (stronger magnet) Top to bottom atoms get larger Why? –Increase in energy levels (You are adding floors to your hotel). Electrons are further from the nucleus
Atomic Radius Atomic radii actually decrease across a row in the periodic table. Due to an increase in the effective nuclear charge. Within each group (vertical column), the atomic radius tends to increase with the period number. Atomic Radii for Main Group Elements
Trend for Ion Size Ion is a charged atom. Metals lose electrons and nonmetals gain electrons to create ions. Cations are pawsitive (positive) and Anions are negative. Cations are smaller than their corresponding atom. Why? Loss of electrons means the positive nucleus has a greater attraction on the remaining electrons Anions are larger than their corresponding atom. Why? Gain of electrons means the nucleus has less attraction for the electrons as well as the electrons are repulsing each other causing an increase in the size of the electron clouds
This is a “self-consistent” scale based on O -2 = 1.40 (or 1.38) Å. Ionic radii depend on the magnitude of the charge of the ion and its environment. (more later) Positively charged ions are smaller than their neutral analogues because of increased Z*. Negatively charged ions are larger than their neutral analogues because of decreased Z*. Radii of ions Same periodic trends as atomic radii for a given charge
Trend for ion size Decrease across a period then jumps in size at nonmetals and continues to decrease Increases on the way down a group as you are adding energy levels (electrons are farther from the nucleus)
Ionization energy The energy required to remove an electron
First ionization energies of the main-group elements Trends in the Periodic Table
Ionization Energy Ionization energy is a periodic property In general, it increases across a row. Why? increasing attraction as the number of protons in the nucleus increases (stronger magnet) it decreases going down a group. Why? Outer shell electrons are further from the nucleus so less electrostatic attraction. Nucleus has less pull on them. Shielding also plays a factor.
6) The trend across from left to right is accounted for by a) the increasing nuclear charge.
Electronegativity - This is the most important trend to understand for this class. The tendency for an atom to attract electrons when chemically bonded. Same trend as ionization energy. –In general, it increases across a row. Why? –increasing attraction as the number of protons in the nucleus increases (stronger magnet) –it decreases going down a group. Why? – Outer shell electrons are further from the nucleus so less electrostatic attraction. Nucleus has less pull on them. Shielding also plays a factor.
Trends in three atomic properties See chart in book for summary
Check for understanding Which of the following atoms has the largest atomic radii, ion size, electronegativity, and ionization energy Na, Mg, K, Ca, S, Cl, Se, Br